Master Sanskrit Easily
sth¹ (ti¬h), dÅ¬ (pa¶y), gam (gacch), i¬ (icch), sic (si¡c), sad (sid), yam (yacch), brØ (vac), kram (kr¹m), bhram (bhr¹m), ¬am (¶¹m), muc (mu¡c), pracch (pÅcch), mÅ (mriy), jan (j¹), jñ¹ (j¹n), kÅt (kÅnt), cak¬ (khy¹), etc. This replacement in the place of the original verbal root (dhtv-¹de¶) is known as the khila-dh¹tu, and similarly the replacement of the termination applied to different Lak¹ras is known as the l-¹de¶a.
Now, we shall acquaint ourselves with a few more verbal roots with some their useful forms.
Of the verbal roots that were given above, all belonged to the First, i.e., the Bhv¹di, Class, and with each of them their forms of Present (La), Imperfect past (La¡), Imperative (Lo), Potential (Li¡), Aorist (Lu¡), Present Participle (˜atr-anta/˜¹naj-anta), Potential Participle (Tavy¹nta/An»yaranta/ Yadanta), Past Passive participle or Gerund ktv¹nta/lyabanta), Infinitive (Tum-anta), and Conditional (LÅ¡), both in Active (Kartari) and Passive (Karmaªi) Voices, have been given.
Thereafter, having rearranged the forms of different verbal roots in separate lists o in accordance with the similar Tense, Mood or Participle, and writing down their meanings, keeping in view the change of meanings with the change of the form.
These verbal roots were given only by way of specimens. In the Classical Sanskrit, however, only about two hundred twenty- five roots are found to be utilized in practical usage. Each of them can have different forms like these, though all are not found to be actually used in literature. But, by keeping a practice of recognizing the forms, one automatically grasps the original verbal root, in the concerned Tense or Mood, the Person, the Number, and consequently its exact meaning.
Rearrange the forms of the following verbal roots by sorting them as per the similar Tense, Mood, etc.:
Ad (2 P.)= ‘to eat’ – atti,
adyate / ¹dat,
adyat¹m / ady¹t, adyeta / adat, adyam¹na / attavya, adan»ya, ¹dya /
sah¹ya‚ ca, dad¹ti / Ida‚ sarva‚ militv¹, san-mitra-lak¬aªa‚ = ¶obhanasya mitrasya cihna‚, bhavati iti, santaå = sajjan¹å, pravadanti = prakar¬eªa vadanti varªayanti /
Coalescence: p¹p¹t+ niv¹rayati / San-mitra-lak¬aªam+idam / Verbal Roots: ni+vÅ (10 U.) = to stop, to make avoid; niv¹rayatri
niv¹rayate / yuj (7 U.) = to join, unite, engage in; yunakti – yu¡kte /
guh (1 U.) = to hide, conceal; gØhati – gØhate / h¹ (3 P.) = to abandon; jah¹ti / d¹ (3 U.)= to give; dad¹ti – datte / pra+vad (1 P.) = to speak, to declare; pravadati /
J¹©ya‚ dhiyo harati siñcati v¹ci satya‚ Manonnati‚ di¶ati p¹pam ap¹karoti / Cetaå pras¹dayati dik¬u tanoti k»rti‚ Sat-sa¡gatiå kathaya kin na karoti pu‚s¹m // Sat-sa¡gatiå = sajjan¹n¹‚ sa¡gaå, diyaå = buddheå, j¹©ya‚ = ja©at¹‚, harati = apa-nayati / Sajjanana-sa¡gaå v¹ci=v¹ªy¹‚, satya‚ siñcati = satyasya siñcana‚ karoti / Sat-sa¡gaå m¹nonnati‚ = m¹na‚ ca unnati‚ ca ubhayam eva, di¶ati = dar¶ayati / Sajjanana- sa¡gatiå p¹pam ap¹karoti = dØra‚ karoti / Sa¡gatiå cataå = citta‚, pras¹dayati = prasanna‚ kurute / Sajjanana-sa¡gaå dik¬u = di¶¹su sarvatra, k»rti‚=ya¶aå, tanoti = vist¹rayati / He mitra! Kathaya / Sat- sa¡gatiå pu‚s¹‚ = nar¹ª¹‚ kÅte (=for) ki‚ na karoti ? Etat-sarvam eva karoti ity arthaå /
Verbal Roots: HÅ (1 U.) = ‘to take, bear, carry, convey, bring, offer, fetch, present, take away, carry off’ – harati – harate /Sic (6 U.)=’ to pour out, discharge, emit, shed, infuse’ / siñcati – siñcate / Di¶ (6 U.)=’to point out, show, exhibit, bring forward, promote, effect, accomplish’ – di¶ati – di¶ate / Apa +¹+kÅ (8 U.)= ‘to remove, drive away, cast off, reject, desist from’ – ap¹karoti – ap¹kurute / Pra+sad (1 P.)=’to settle down, grow clear and bright, become placid or tranquil, become clear’ – pras»dati ; Caus. pras¹dayati / Tan (8 U.)= ‘to spread, extend, be diffused, shine, stretch’ – tanoti – tanute /
Mada-h»no gajaå, lajj¹-h»n¹ kula-vadhØå, n»ti-vikalo r¹j¹, d¹na-h»no n¹yakaå, badhiro mantr», alasaå kum¹raå, dur-vin»taå ¶i¬yaå, dhvaja-rahita‚ deva-kulam, ¹jaya-rahita‚ bhojana‚,