Master Sanskrit Easily
i.e., replacement of the sagho¬a mah¹-pr¹ªa by the a-gho¬a mah¹- pr¹ªa consonant, of abhy¹sa) ba+bhØ+a =ba+bhuv+a=ba bhØ va/ lilekha =likh+ti=li likh+ a (by tib¹de¶a)=li lekh (by guª¹de¶a of the root)+a (by tib¹de¶a)= li le kha / In the Parasmai-pada this guª¹de¶a occurs in the singular forms of all the three Persons. In the 2nd Per. Sing., e.g., li likh+i+tha=lilikhitha, and in the 1st Per. Du., and Pl., e.g., li likh+i+tha=lilikhitha, and in the 1st Per. Du., and Pl., e.g., li likh+i+va= lilikhiva, li likh+i+ma= lilikhima, the root takes the i©d-¹gama. In the forms of the rot pah, the root takes the vÅddhay-¹de¶a, i.e., replacement of a, e, o, by ¹, ai, au, respectively, e.g., pah+ti= pah+a (by tib-¹de¶a)=pa pah (by dvitva)+a =p p¹h (by vÅddhay-¹de¶a) +a= pap¹ha. But, in the forms other than those of the 3rd and the 1st Per., the elision of reduplication (abhy¹sa- lopa), replacement by e (etv¹de¶a) occurs. Pa pah+anti= pah+a (by tib-¹de¶a) = pa+ pah (by dvitva)+a= peh (by abhy¹sa-lopa and etv¹de¶a)+ a = peh a= peha / Similarly, pethuå / pah+si= pah+tha (by tib-¹de¶a)=pa pah+tha (by dvitva) = peh+i+tha (by abhy¹sa- etv¹de¶a-lopa and i©¹gama)= peh i tha= pehitha / In the ¸tmane-pada, the termination se of 2nd Per. Sing. is retroflexed to ¬, e.g., cakÅ¬e / In the 1st Per. Sing. Du. And Pl. ¸tmane- pada forms of the root kÅ, the final Å is replaced by the reph¹de¶a, i.e., ra, e,g., kÅ+e=ca kÅ (by dvitva)+e=ca kr (by reph¹de¶a)+e=ca kr e =cakre / Similarly, cakr¹te, cakrire / In the forms of the root adhi+i, the root is replaced by jag, its dh¹tv¹de¶a.
The replacement of the root by something is called the dh¹tv¹de¶a. In the roots of the Ad¹di, i.e., 2nd class, the root as is replaced bhØ, its dh¹tv¹de¶a, and the forms of bhØ are considered to be those of the root as in Past Perfect (Li.). In the Li forms of the root as (4 P.) of t h e D i v ¹ d i , i . e . , t h e 4 t h c l a s s , t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l gives us a a = ¹, as per the coalescence. e a
Tan (8 U.)= ‘to extend, spread’.
KÅ(8 U.)= ‘to do, make, perform’
Kry¹di (=Ninth) Class: Before the terminations of Tenses and Moods are applied to them, the adjunct ¶ap is replaced by ¶n¹ which is its ¶ab¹de¶a, and before the pit terminations (i.e. in 1st, 2nd and 3rd Per.
Sing.) it remains
n¹, before the non-pit terminations with initial
consonant it becomes n», and before the non-pit terminations with initial vowel it becomes n.1 For instance, kr»+ ¶ap+ ti=kr»+¶n¹+ti=kr»+n¹+ti=kr»+ª¹+ti=kr»ª¹ti /kr»+¶ap+ taåi = kr»
¶n¹+taå=kr»+n»+taå=kr»ª»taå / kr»+ ¶ap+ anti=kr» +¶n¹ +anti
=kr»+n+anti=kr»+ª+anti=kr»ªanti / jñ¹ (=j¹)+¶ap+ te = j¹ +
¶n¹+te= j¹+n»+te= j¹ª»te
Kr» (9 U.)= ‘to buy, purchase’
Jñ¹ (9 U.)=’to know, understand’
Cur¹di (= Tenth) Class: Before the terminations of Tenses and Moods are applied to them, the adjunct ªic is applied to it, but since it is not a ¶ab¹de¶a, the adjunct ¶ap is also applied to it after it, and because of it the final or the penultimate vowel of the verbal root is replaced by its guªa equivalent. For instance, cur+ªic+¶ap+ti= cur+i+a+ti=cor+e (by guª¹de¶a)+a+ti=cor+ay (by coalescence of e+a)+ti =corayati / ni+mantr+nic+¶ap+te= ni+mantr+i+ a + te= ni+mantr+e+a+te+ ni+mantr+ay+te / Hence, it is by way of simplification that the students are taught that the adjunct of the Tenth Class is aya !