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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 42 / 48

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178

Master Sanskrit Easily

Rac (10 U.)= ‘to make, produce.’

Ni+sud (10 U.)= ‘to kill, slay.’

Parasmaipada

¸tmanepada

Sing. Pr.Pu racayati.

  • M.

    Pu. racayasi

  • U.

    Pu. racay¹mi

Du.

Pl.

racayataå racayanti racayathaå racayatha racay¹vah racay¹maå

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

ni¬Ødayate ni¬Ødayete ni¬Ødayante ni¬Ødayase ni¬Ødayethe ni¬Ødayadhve ni¬Ødaye ni¬Øday¹vahe ni¬Øday¹mahe

In English the different voices of speech such as Active, Passive and Causal are well known. For instance: ‘I am playing’ (Active); ‘I am being played’ (Passive); Friend is making me play’ (Causal). In Sanskrit such constructions are known as Kartari, Karmaªi and Preraka, respectively.

Now, read aloud the following verse and its Sanskrit explana-

tion:

˜atrØn agamayat svarga‚ ved¹rtha‚ sv¹n avedayat / ¸¶ayac c¹mÅta‚ dev¹n vedam adhy¹payad vidhim / (Footnotes) Here we have to note that the terminations tip, sip and mip of the 1st , 2nd and 3rd 1

Pers. Sing. are pit; the terminations tas, thas and vas of the 1st , 2nd and 3rd Pers. Du.are non-pit and having an initial consonant; and the terminationsjha (P. = anti)and jha (¸. = anta) are having an initial vowel. In modern Sanskrit Grammars the pit terminations are called “strong”, while the non-pit terminations are called “weak”.

¸sayat salile pÅthv»‚ yaå sa me ¶r»-harir gatiå //

Yaå ¶r»-hariå ¶atrØn svargam agamayat (=made go; took, conveyed); yaå ¶r»-hariå sv¹n svak»y¹n ved¹rtham avedayat (= helped to know); yaå ¶r» hariå dev¹‚¶ ca amÅtam ¹¶ayat asv¹dayat (=helped them taste); yaå ¶r» hariå vidhi‚ brahma-deva‚ vedam adhy¹payad a¶ik¬ayat (= taught); yaå ¶r» hariå pÅthv»‚ salile jale ¹sayat sthir¹m akarot (=stabilized); saå ¶r» hariå me mama gatiå sarvottama‚ ¶araªam asti /

˜i¬yaå p¹­ha‚ pa­hati (=learns) / ¸c¹ryaå p¹­ha‚ p¹­hayati (=makes learn, teaches) / Putraå hasati (=laughs) / M¹t¹ putra‚ h¹sayati (=makes laugh) / Gaj¹å jala‚ pibanti (=drink) / ¸dhoraªa (=elephant driver) gaj¹n jala‚ p¹yayati (=makes drink) / BhÅtyaå karma karoti (=does) / ˜v¹m» bhÅty¹n karma k¹rayati (=makes do) / Mayuraå nÅtyati (=dances) / Meghaå mayura‚ nartayati (=makes dance) /

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

P.Pu.

pap¹­ha

pe­hatuå

pe­huå

reme

rem¹te

remire

M.Pu.

pe­hitha

pe­hathuå

pe­ha

remi¬e

rem¹the

remidhve

U.Pu.

pap¹­h

pe­hiva

pe­hima

reme

remivahe

remimahe

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Pr.Pu cak¹ra

cakratuå

cakruå

M.Pu. cakartha

cakrathuå

cakra

U.Pu. cak¹ra

cakÅva

cakÅma

Lesson 19

Pa­h (1 P.) = ‘to study, read’

cakre

cakr¹te

cakrire

cakr¬e

cakr¹the

cakr©he

cakre

cakrvahe

cakrmahe

191

ram (1 ¸.)

= ‘to play, be pleased’

Pl.

(8. U.) = ‘to do, make’

(8. U.) = ‘to do, make’

Sing.

Du.

Pr.Pu. babhØva

babhØtuå

babhØvuå

M.Pu. babhØvitha babhØvathuå

babhØva

BhØ (1 U.) = ‘to be’ Sing.

Du.

Pl.

BhØ (1 U.) = ‘to be’

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

babhØve babhØvithe

babhØv¹te babhØvire babhØv¹the babhØvidhve

U.Pu

babhØva

babhØviva

babhØvima

babhØve

babhØvivahe

babhØvimahe

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Pr.Pu

¹sa

¹saatuå

¹suå

as (4 P.) = ‘to throw, hurl’

  • M.

    Pu.

  • U.

    Pu

¹sa

¹sasima

¹sitha

¹sa

¹sathuå

¹sasiva

adhi-i (2 ¸.) ‘to study’

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

adhijage

adhij¹te

adhijagire

adhiajgi¬e

adhijag¹the

adhijagidhve

adhijage

adhijagivahe

adhijagimahe

From the view point of the P¹ªinian system, the terminations ªal etc., shown above are the tib¹de¶as (=tip+¹de¶a), i.e., the ones that replace the original terminations tip etc. As per the P¹ªinian procedure, first of all the la-k¹ra is applied to the verbal root, and thereafter the tib¹de¶as replace them. Thus, for instance, when the tib¹de¶as are applied to the verbal root bhØ, there comes in between the adjunct vug¹gama (=vuk+¹gama), of which only v survives, because the sounds u and k are elided since they are the its, i.e., symbolical. Then, the reduplication operates, in which the original root is called an-abhy¹sa’ (=on-repeated), while the reduplicated part put first before the original root is called ‘abhy¹sa’. Then the changes occur in the abhy¹sa.

Now, let us examine from the point of view of grammatical analysis some of the verbal forms seen above: babhØva = bhØ+ti= bhØ+a (by tib¹de¶a) = (by reduplication) bhØ bhØ+a=bha bha =(by ja¶-¹de¶a,

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