Master Sanskrit Easily
From the viewpoint of the grammatical word formation, of these verbal forms, the first syllable of the verbal root is duplicated. This process of duplication is technically called ‘dvitva’ (= doubling) or ‘abhy¹sa’ (=reduplication). The rules about it are as follows: (1) First of all the whole root is repeated, as for instance, pah pah , in which the first ‘pah’ part is called ‘abhy¹sa’. (2) From it the first syllable ‘pa’ of is retained, while the rest ‘h’ is elided; thus ‘pa pah’ survives. (3) If there be a mah¹-pr¹ªa consonant (=the 2nd or 4th of the respective class) in the abhy¹sa, it is replaced by the alpa-pr¹ªa one (=the 1st or 3rd one of the respective class), for instance, bh¹¬ bh¹¬ = bh¹ bh¹¬= b¹ bh¹¬ , chid chid = chi chid = ci chid / Thus, k, kh or k¬ changes to c, g to j, ch to c , dh to d, bh to b, and h to j. For instance, krand > ca- krand, khan > ca-khan, gam > ja-gam, chad > ca-ched, dh¹v > da- dh¹v, bhram > ba-bhram, and h¹ > ja-h¹. (4) The long vowel in the abhy¹sa is shortened, as for instance, n» > ni-n». (5) The guttural consonant in the abhy¹sa is replaced by the dental one, as for instance, kh¹d kh¹d > kh¹ kh¹a > kha kh¹d > ca kh¹d, gam gam > ga gam > ja gam. (6) In the case of some verbal roots in which the vowel a occurs medially, it is replaced by e, except in the 1st and the 3rd Per. Sing., for instance, ram > rem. (7) After all these processes, the terminations of the Past Pefect Tense (LÅ) are directly applied to verbal root without any vikaraªa intervening it.
On seeing the reduplication and the termination of the LÅ, which are given below, one can immediately recognize the verbal form
of the Past Perfect Tense: Parasmai-pada
Let us see the Past Perfect forms of a few verbal roots, given below:
¸tmanepada bh¹¬ (1 ¸.) = ‘to speak’
M. Pu. lilekhitha
Parasmai-pada likh (6 P.) = ‘to write’
Pl. babh¹¬ire babh¹¬idhve
Now, note : In the above verse and sentences, the usages agamayat, avedayat, ¹¶ayat, adhy¹payat, ¹sayat, ak¹rayat, p¹hayati, h¹sayati, p¹yayati, k¹rayati, nartayati are the verbs the causal sense of the respective roots. For converting a verb from the Active Voice to the Causal, the termination aya is applied to the root. In the P¹ªinian system this termination is mentioned as ªic (=i, having the indicatory marks ª and c attached to it), and the forms in which this termination is applied are technically known as ªy-anta (ªi-ended). Practically, this Causal termination i is replaced by e its guªa equivalent, which combines with the ¶ap (=a) following it, thus forming the final form of the termination as aya. As we have seen above, the verbal roots of the Tenth Class take the termination aya, and the forms of this class in the Active Voice are, therefore, technically called ªij-anta (nic-ended). When the termination of aya is applied to the verbal root of any root-class, its in Causal is obtained, and then as per the intention of the user the terminations of the intended Tense or Mood, Person and Number are applied and the requisite form is ready for use in the sentence.
Now, let us see from viewpoint of
agamayat = a+gam+aya+t / Here, the adjunct a (known as a©-¹gama) of the Imperfect Past Tense has been prefixed to, and the termination aya of the Causal has come after, the root gam, and the termination t of the Third Person (Prathama Puru¬a) Singular has been applied at the end. Similarly, avedayat = a+vid +aya+t =a+ved (guª¹de¶a)+aya+t / ¹¶ayat =a+a¶+aya+t =¹+a¶+aya+t / ady¹payat =adhi+a+i+apaya +t =adhy+a+e+apaya+t =adhya+ apaya+t / ¹sayat =a+as+aya+t =¹+as+aya+t / ak¹rayat =a+kÅ + aya+t =a+k¹r(by vÅddhy¹de¶a of Å to ¹r)) / p¹hayatu=pah (>p¹h)+aya+ti / h¹sayati = has (>h¹s)+aya+ti / p¹yayati =pyai (>py¹y by vÅddhy¹de¶a of ai to ¹y)+aya+ti / k¹rayati = kÅ + aya+ti =k¹r(by vÅddhy¹de¶a of Å to ¹r)) +aya+ti / nartayati= nÅt (>nart by guª¹de¶a
of Å to ar)+aya+ti /
While applying the termination aya of the Causal (and thus practically following the procedure of the Tenth Class) the other changes that take place in accordance with the procedure are the following: (1) The final vowel of the root is replaced by its vÅddhy¹de¶a, e.g., nai