Master Sanskrit Easily
n¹y / bhØ >bh¹v / (2) The penultimate short vowel of most of the
roots is replaced by its d»rgh¹de¶a, i.e., long one, e.g., pah >p¹h; nad
n¹d / (3) The penultimate short vowel of some of the roots is replaced
by its guª¹de¶a, e.g., bhid > bhed ; mud > mod ; kÅ¬ > kar¬ / (4) The roots like jan, gam, and others being exceptions to this rule, no d»rgh¹de¶a nor guª¹de¶a has taken place in its Causal forms like janayati, gamayati, etc. (5) p or y is added at the end of the verbal root ending in ¹ , a s f o r i n s t a n c e , s t h ¹ + a y a + t i = s t h ¹ p = + a y a + t i = s t h ¹ p a y a t i / m¹+aya+ti= m¹+p+ p¹+y+aya+ti= p¹yayati/ / aya+ti=m¹payati p¹+ aya+ti=
In Sanskrit language, when the following verbal roots govern two objects, used in double Accusative, hence they are called dvi- karmaka: duh (2 U.)= ‘to milk’, G¹‚ dogdhi - dugdhe payaå / y¹c (1 U.)=’to beg’, Bali‚ vasudh¹‚ y¹cati - y¹cate / pac (1 U.) Taª©ul¹n odana‚ pacati - pacate /daª© (10 U.) Garg¹n ¶ata‚ daª©ayati - daª©ayate / rudh (7 U.) ‘to hold up’, G¹‚ vrajam ava-ruªaddhi – ava- runddhe / pracch (6 P.) ‘to ask’, Mªªavaka‚ panth¹na‚ pÅcchati / ci (5 U.) = ‘to collect’, vÅk¬am ava-cinoti - ava-cinute - phal¹ni/ brØ (2 U.) ‘to speak’, bravÅti – bÅØte, ¶i¬a‚ dharma‚ brav»ti - brØte/ ¶¹s (2 P.)= ‘ ‘to advise’, ¶i¬ya‚ dharma‚ ¶¹sti // ji (1 P.)= ‘to win’ devadatta‚ ¶ata‚ jayati / manth (9 P.) = ‘to churn, to agitate’ Sudh¹‚ k¬»ra- nidhi‚ mathn¹ti / mu¬ (9 P.) = to rob, plunder’ devadatta‚ ¶ata‚ mu¬ª¹ti / n» (1 U.)= ‘to lead, carry off’ gr¹mam aj¹‚ nayati - nayate / hÅ (1 U.)= ‘to take, bar, carry, convey, fetch’ gr¹mam aj¹‚ harati - harate/ kÅ¬ (1 P.)= ‘to draw, pull, plough’ gr¹mam aj¹‚ kÅ¬ati / vah (1 U.) =’to bear along, carry, flow’ gr¹mam aj¹‚ vahati – vahate / These, and other verbal roots having similar sense, are dvi-karmaka, i.e., they govern two objects.
Now note : When a form of a dvi-karmaka verbal root is utilized, two nouns are used in the Objective Case in the sentence; one of them is the principal and the other is subsidiary. For instance, ¶r»-hariå ¶atrØn svargam agamayat / Here in the Active Voice sentence the statement is about being sent to heaven (svargam) which is the destination, used as the Object in the Accusative Case. But since the construction is Causal with the verb agamayat, the original Object ‘svargam’ of the Active Voice
Atha prabh¹te sa van¹ya (=for forest) dhenu‚ (=the cow) mumoca (=released) / Sa-vats¹‚ dhenu‚ pradak¬Iª»kÅtya (=having circumambulated) sa nÅpaå puraå (=forward) yayau (=started, went) / Tasy¹‚ sudak¬iª¹y¹‚ raghu-n¹mn¹ suto jajñe (=was born) / Guru- dak¬iª¹rth» kautso raghu‚ (=to Raghu) prapede (=approached) / Raghor v»ry¹ti¶ayena (=due to superior valour) vÅtrah¹ (=Indra) tuto¬a (=was satisfied) /
Siddh¹rthaå pr¹s¹de (=in the palace) sukha‚ na lebhe (=got,
obtained) / Sa hiraªmaya‚ (=golden, of gold) s made y a n d a n a m ( = c h a r i o t ) ¹ r u r o h a ( = m o u n t e d o n , a s c e n d e d o n ) / ˜ a n a i å ¶anaiå (=slowly and slowly) ca sa r¹ja-m¹rga‚ (=on the royal road) pratasthe (=started, went) / Ta‚ dra¬u‚ (=in order to see, look at) v¹t¹yane¬u (=in the windows) vanit¹n¹‚ (=of the damsels) mukha- pa¡kaj¹ni (=lotus-like faces) virejuå (=shone out, looked beautiful) /
Tasmin sa‚yamin¹‚ (=of the celibates) vane madhuå (=the Spring season) jajÅmbhe (=blossomed, spread out) / ¸mra-mañjar»- sv¹dena (=due to the taste of the Mango buds) mattaå kokilaå madhra‚ (=sweetly) cukØja (=cooked) / Um¹ ‘pi vÅ¬abha-dhvaj¹ya (=to ˜iva, having a bull as a banner symbol) praªan¹ma (=bowed down, saluted) / Atha gaur» t¹mra-ruc¹ (=having the copper luster) kareªa gir»¶¹ya (=to ˜iva, the Lord of the Himalayan mountain) pu¬kara-b»ja-m¹l¹‚ (=a garland of lotus seeds) upaninye (=presented) / Haraå tasy¹å mukhe dÅ¬i‚ cak¹ra (=directed a gaze)/ Tataå k¹madeva‚ dÅ¬v¹ (=having seen) bhave-netra-janm¹-vahniå (=the fire generated from the eye of ˜iva) madana‚ bhasm¹va¶e¬a‚ (=as a residue in the form of ashes) cak¹ra (=made, rendered) / ˜Øny¹ ¶ail¹tmaj¹ (=P¹rvat», the of the Himalayan mountain) pitur bhavana‚ jag¹ma (=went away) /
In the above sentences we find the verbs like babhØva, pariªin¹ya, jagmatuå, cakruå, mumoca, prayayau, jajñe, prapede, tuto¬a, lebhe, ¹ruroha, pratasthe, jajÅmbha, cukØja, praªan¹ma, upaninye, cak¹ra, cakre and jag¹ma; they denote the sense of very far past events or actions, that occurred in ancient times. In Sanskrit such verbal forms are called Parok¬a-bhØta-k¹la. Parok¬am = ak¬ªoå param = that which is beyond are vision. Such verbal forms are found to be used in the ancient literature, like the Vedic Sa‚hit¹s, the Br¹maªas, ¸raªyakas and the Upani¬ads. In the P¹ªinian system the Parok¬a- bhØta-k¹la, or the Past Perfect Tense is known by the term Li.