Master Sanskrit Easily
instances the å has been changed to r, which has joined with the following consonant or vowel. At¹©ayat+caraªataå (t+c=c+c=cc).
In this verse there is an enjoyable play of questions and answers. The syllables in answer to the first question in the first half of the quarter, when inverted provides the answer to the question in the second half of the same quarter of this verse. Thus, the syllables of the word ‘s¹- dha-ve’ (=to a good man), the answer to the first question, when inverted becomes ‘ve-dha-s¹’ and provides the answer to the second question in the same quarter.
Aho kenedÅ¶» buddhir d¹ruª¹ tava nirmit¹ / Triguª¹ ¶rØyate buddhir na tu d¹rumay» kvacit // Atra ¶loke pØrv¹rdhe vallabhaå (=a lovin husband) ru¬¹y¹å (=of the offended) priyatam¹y¹å (=of the loving wife) anunaya‚ kurvan (=while entreating) brØte (=tells): Aho ! He ! priyatame ! Tava buddhir idÅ¶» d¹ruª¹ bhaya¡kar¹, kahor¹ v¹, kena nirmit¹ ? Eva‚ kahora- vacanena yad¹ priy¹ m¹na‚ na muñcati, tad¹ priyatamaå svasya pra¶nasyottara‚ svayam eva vadati yat (=that) buddhiå tri-guª¹ sattva- rajas-tama iti guªa-traya-svarØp¹ ¶rØyate/ s¹¡khya-¶¹stre, vede v¹, ki‚- tu kvacit kutr¹pi d¹rumay» k¹¬ha-may» naiva ¶rØyate /
This verse, too, contains an entertaining play of the questions and answers. A loving husband trying to get court his beloved, but offended, wife reconciled, is tired at last by her undaunted attitude, and exclaims as to who has created the terribly wooden mentality in her. And, as an after thought he reflects that this creation cannot be of the creator of the world, since the mind is not made of the wood ! Here, there is verbal play on the word ‘d¹ruª¹’. When this word is taken as a Nom. Sing. of the feminine form of the adjective ‘d¹ruªa’ it means ‘terrible’; but when taken as an Instr, Sing. of the neuter noun ‘d¹ru’ (=wood), it means ‘(made) out of wood’.
Now, read the following sentences aloud trying to
understand their meanings: Pur¹ (=formerly) ayody¹-nagary¹
‚ dil»po n¹ma r¹j¹ babhØva
(= was there, happened to be) / Sa sudak¬iª¹‚ n¹ma magadha-r¹ja- putr»‚ pariªin¹ya (=married) / Atha kad¹cid (=sometimes) tau dampat» (=couple) vasi¬h¹¶rama‚ jagmatuå (=went) / Munayas t¹bhy¹m arhaª¹‚ (=respectful welcome) cakruå (=did) /
sentence, viz., ‘¶atravaå svargam agacchan /’ has become subsidiary in the Causal construction, and the Subject ‘¶atravaå’ has become the principal Object used in the Accusative Case. Thus, in the Causal construction the verbal root ‘gam’ (= ‘to go) is dvi-karmak and conveys the sense of the root ‘n»’ (= ‘to take, convey, carry’).
Now, read aloud the following sentences, trying to grasp their meaning:
Adhy¹pakaå ¶i¬y¹ya p¹rito¬ika‚ (=prize) yacchati / ¸c¹ryaå adhy¹pakena ¶i¬y¹ya p¹rito¬ika‚ d¹payati (=makes him give) /
B¹laå daª©ena ghata‚ bhanakti (=breaks)
pustaka‚ vahati (=carries) (=makes him carry) /
/ Ki¶oraå b¹lena break) / Ch¹traå pustaka‚ v¹hayati
In these sentences the first one is in the Active construction, while the second one is in the Causal. In the Causal construction, the subject (in the Nominative Case) of the original Active construction is put in the Instrumental Case, while the words on the Objective, Instrumental and Dative in the original remain unchanged in the Causal one. But when the dvikarmaka verbal roots are used the principal and subsidiary objects of the original sentence are put in the Accusative Case. For instance:
Sudaå (= the cook) anna‚ pacati (=cooks) / Sv¹m» sØdena anna‚ p¹cayati (=makes him cook) / Sv¹min¹ (=by the master) sØdena (=through the cook) anna‚ p¹cayate (=is being cooked)/ b¹laå p¹ha¶¹l¹‚ gacchati / pit¹ b¹la‚ p¹ha¶¹l¹‚ gamayati / pitr¹ b¹laå p¹ha¶¹l¹‚ gamayate / tva¬¹ vajra‚ karoti / dev¹å tva¬¹ra‚ - tva¬r¹ - vajra‚ k¹rayanti / devaiå tva¬r¹ vajra‚ k¹ryate / r¹maå caturda¶a-sa‚vatsara‚ vana‚ prati¬hati (=starts