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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 47 / 48





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Master Sanskrit Easily

preferences for particular sect. The idea suggested is that the external forms are of no importance, and consequently, the differences of opinion, as well as conflicts based on them, are unwarranted.

In Sanskrit language, as in many other modern spoken ones, their occur certain invariable changes when particular sounds come together as the final one of the preceding word and the initial one of the immediately following one; this change is known as ‘coalescence’. This process is natural. We have seen it in connection with the coalescence of vowels and visarga (å), occurring in the sentences or the compounds. In this lesion we would like to introduce ourselveswith the coalescence of consonants. The general rule of the consonantal coalescence is that the previous consonantal sound takes over the qualities of the one that follows it. This process works in many ways, as shown below:


(1) When a hard consonant follows a soft one, the latter

becomes a hard one. For instance, tad+k¹laå=tat+k¹laå (d+k=t+k) / suhÅd+samak¬am= suhÅt+samak¬am (d+s=t+s) / v¹g+kalahaå=

v¹k+kalahaå(g+k=k+k)= v¹k-kalahaå/


(2) When a soft consonant follows a hard one, the latter

becomes a soft one. For instance, dik+gajaå= dig+gajaå (k+g=g+g)= dig-gajaå/ (2) (3) When a nasal consonant follows a non-nasal one, the former changes to the nasal of its own group. For instance, cit+mayaå =cin+mayaå (t+m=n+m; n being the nasal of the dental t-group) (4) This tendency of taking over the qualities of the following consonant is seen in another way, too. For instance, ta©it+lat¹= ta©il+lat¹ (t+l=l+l)= ta©il-lat¹. (5) The final c, ¶ and j of the words become k, even if nothing follows them. For instance, v¹c=v¹k / di¶ = dik / bhi¬aj=bhi¬ak / (6) In a word when occurring medially, the n preceded by ¬ or r, irrespective of the intermediate vowel, becomes ª. For instance, mar+anam=mar+aªam= marªam / po¬+anam=po¬+aªam= po¬aªam / (7) When in a word t is followed by ¬, the former becomes c and the latter ch. For instance, tat+¶abdaå=tac+chabdaå (t+¶=c+ch) /

mat+¶i¶uå=mac+chi¶uå = macchi¶uå /

Lesson 18


ram (1 ¸.)= ‘to play, stand still, enjoy. L»yate = La­. (Pres.) Passive Pra. Pu. (3rd Per.) Sing. of (9 P. lin¹ti)=’to adhere, melt’. Vibh¹ti=La­. (Pres.) Pra. Pu. (3rd Per.) Sing. of vi+bh¹ (2 P.)= ‘to shine, gleam forth’. Y¹nti= La­. (Pres.) Pra. Pu. (3rd Per. y¹ti) Pl. of (2 P.) ‘’to go’. Prastaumi = La­. (Pres.) Utt. Pu. (1st Per.) Sing. of pra+stu (2 U.

prastauti, prastav»ti, prastute, prastuv»te) =’to praise = Gerund from apa+as (4. P. ap¹syati).

. Eulogize. Ap¹sya

Compounds: sahaj¹nandojjvalam=sahaja

‚ ca ¹nanda‚ ca

ujjvala‚ ca (a sam¹h¹ra-dvandva). akriyam= na kriyam (a nañ- tatpuru¬a sam¹sa). apunarbhav¹ya = na punarbhav¹ya (Nañ-tatpuru¬a- sam¹sa). Dvaita-dhv¹ntam= dvaitam eva dhv¹ntam (karma-dh¹raya sam¹sa).

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