Master Sanskrit Easily
Madhu (neu.) = honey.
On comparing these forms, we find that the difference is much more in the forms of the Nominative, Vocative and the Accusative cases. The forms in the Instrumental are similar. The dual and plural forms of the Dative, Ablative, Genitive and the Locative cases, too, are similar. But the singular forms of these four cases are slightly different from each other, as between gurave and madhne, guroå and madhunaå, gurau and madhuni. From the point of view of grammatical analysis, the final u of guru is replaced by its guªa vowel o, before terminations of these cases and it coalesces with them. Thus, guru+e=guro+e(Dat.)= gur-av+e = gurave / guru+as (Abl. & Gen.)=guro+as=guro-s (by elision of a) guroå / guru+i= guro+i=gura (o>a)+ i (e>au)=gurau. But in the case the word madhu, the num- ¹gama (i.e., n) is added before these cases terminations. Thus, madh+n+¹ (Instr.)=madhun¹ / madhu + n+e(Dat.)=madhune / madhu+n+as (Abl.-Gen.) = madhunaå / madhu+n+i=madhni . This Paªinian analysis is for subtle logic of the grammatical understanding.
Now, let us compare and contrast the forms of the i-k¹r¹nta (mas.) nouns with those of the u-k¹r¹nta (mas.) nouns:
In the above sentences, the nouns in the Ablative and Nominative are used, and the verb sambhØtaå in all them, but the last one is implied; in the last one the verb bhavati, or asti, or vartate is implied.
Vocabulary: ¸tmanaå= Abl. Sing. of ¹tman (m.) =from the Self. V¹yoå=Abl, Sing. of v¹yu (m.)= from the wind. Agneå=Abl. Sing. of agni (m.) = from the fire. Adbhyaå= Abl. Sing. of ap (f.)= from the waters. PÅthivy¹å= Abl. Sing. of pÅthiv» (f.)= from the earth. O¬adhibhyaå= Abl. Sing. of O¬adhi (f.)= from the plants. Ann¹t = Abl. Sing. of anna (n.) = from grains. Rasa (m.)= juice.
Coalescence: Tasm¹t+¹tmanaå (-t+¹-=-d¹-) / ¹k¹¶¹t+ v¹yuå (t+v=dv) / In V¹yoå+agniå and Agneå+¹paå (oå+a=ora, eå+¹=er¹) / PÅthivy¹å+o¬adhayaå (¹å+o= ¹ o) / O¬adhayaå+ annam (aå+a=a a) / Puru¬aå + anna-rasamaya (aå+a=o’)/
Sukhasya mØla‚ dharmaå / Dharmasya mØlam arthaå / Arthasya mØla‚ r¹jyam / R¹jyasya mØla indriya-jayaå / Indriya- jayasya mØla‚ vinayaå / Vinayasya mØla‚ vÅddhopasev¹ / VÅddhopasev¹y¹ mØla‚ vijñ¹nam / Vijñ¹nen¹tm¹na‚ samp¹dayet /
Coalescence: MØlam+ arthaå (-m+a-=-ma-) / - mØlam+
indriya- (-mi-) / -sev¹y¹å+ mØlam ¹ t m ¹ n a m + s a m - ( - a + ¹ = ¹ , a m + s a = a
‚ (-¹å+m-=¹ m-) /Vijñ¹nena+ sa). –sev¹y¹å+mØlam (¹å+
Vocabulary: MØlam = Root, source, cause. Våddhopa- sev¹y¹å= Gen. Sing. of the compound noun vÅddhopasev¹ (f.)= Of the service to aged people. ¸tmanaå =Gen. Sing. of the noun ¹tman (m.)= O f t h e S e l f . S a m p ¹ d a y e t = C a u s a l P o t e n t i a l 3 r d P e r . S i n g . o f t h e r o sam+pad (4 ¸.)= One should accomplish. o t
Compounds: R¹jya-mØlam =r¹jyasya+mØlam /Indriya-jayaå = Indriy¹ª¹‚ jayaå / VÅddhopasev¹ = vÅddhasya upasev¹ /