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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 6 / 48

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Nakula-sarpayoå, jala-vai¶v¹narayoå, deva-daityayoå, s¹rameya-m¹rj¹rayoå, si‚ha-gajayoå, vy¹ghra-gavoå, k¹ka- ghØkayoå, paª©ita-mØrkhayoå, pativrat¹-svairiªyoå, sajjana- durjanayoå sahaja‚ vaira‚ bhavati /

Divasa-r¹tryoå, sØrya-khadyotayor, ha‚sa-bakayor, hasti- gardhabhayoå, si‚ha-¶Åg¹layoå, r¹ja-ra¡kayoå, tath¹ samyaktva- mithy¹tvayor mahad antara‚ bhavati /

In the sentences of both the above paragraphs, the Genitive Dual forms of the compound nouns are used, and, after every form in the dual in the first paragraph, the verbal phrase sahaja‚ vaira‚ bhavati is implied, while after those in the second paragraph, the verbal phrase mahad antara‚ bhavati is implied. On repeating these verbal

phrases, respectively,

in the sentences of the respective paragraphs,

we can formulate as many independent sentences as there are dual forms, e.g., Nakula-sarpayoå sahaja‚ vaira‚ bhavati / Divasa-r¹tryor mahad antara‚ bhavati / (=There is a great difference between the day and the night.) and so on.

Coalescence: -r¹tryoå+mahat (-oå+ma=orma). Mahat+ antaram (t+a=da).

Vocabulary: Nakula (m.) = mongoose. Sarpa (m.)= snake. Vai¶v¹nara (m.)= fire. Daitya (m.) =demon. S¹rameya (m.)=dog. M¹rj¹ra (m.) =cat. Si‚ha (m.)= lion. Gaja (m.)= hastin (m.)= elephant. Vy¹ghra (m.)= tiger. Gau (m.)= bull. K¹ka (m.)= crow. GhØka (m.)= owl. Pativrat¹ (f.)= chaste woman. Svairiª» (f.)= wanton, unchaste woman. Sahaja (mfn.) =natural. Vaira (n.) = enmity. Khadyota (m.) =glow-worm. Ha‚sa (m.) =swan. Baka

ompounds: Nakula-sarpayoå=nakulaå ca sarpaå ca nakula- sarpau, tayoå / Jala-vai¶v¹narayoå = Jala‚ ca vai¶v¹naraå ca nakula- vai¶v¹narau, tayoå / Vy¹ghra-gavoå=vy¹ghraå ca gauå ca vy¹ghra- gavau, tayoå / Pativrat¹-svairiªyoå=Pativrat¹ ca svairiª» ca, tayoå / Divasa-r¹tryoå= divasaå ca r¹tr» ca, tayoå / Samyaktva-mithy¹vayoå= samyaktva‚ ca mithy¹tva‚ ca, tayoå /, and so on.

Lesson

11

107

in the dual forms of the Nominative, Locative and Accusative cases, the medial one is long in the plural forms of those cases.

Here it should also be remembered that the forms of the popular neuter words like ak¬i (=eye), asthi (=bone) and sakthi (=thigh) are also declined in accordance with those of the noun dadhi, e.g., in Instr. Sing. ak¬ª¹/asthn¹/sakthn¹, in Dat. Sing. ak¬ªe/ asthne/ sakthne, in Abl. and Gen. Du. ak¬ªoå/asthnoå/ sakthnoå, in Gen. Pl. ak¬ª¹m/asthn¹m/sakthn¹m. Since this type of forms were popular in the usage in Sanskrit, P¹ªini justified them grammatically by showing them by way of the exception to the general rule.

The difference between the masculine and the neuter forms of the i-k¹r¹nta nouns is limited to those of the Nominative, Vocative ans Accusative cases only. The Vocative Singular and those of all other cases are similarly declined, as for instance:

Pra./Nom. Sa‚/Voc. Dvi./Acc.

Sing. hari (m.)/v¹ri (n.) hare (m.)/v¹re(n.) harim(m.)/v¹ri (n.)

Du. har» (m.)/v¹riª»(n.) har» (m.)/v¹riª»(n.) har» (m.)/v¹riª»(n.)

Pl. harayaå(m.)/ v¹r»ªi(n.) harayaå (m.)/v¹riª»(n.) har»n(m.) / v¹riª»(n.)

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Pra./Nom.

guruå

gurØ

guravaå

Sa‚./Voc.

guro

gurØ

guravaå

Dvi./Acc.

gurum

gurØ

gurØn

TÅ./Instr.

guruª¹

gurubhy¹m

gurubhiå

gurubhy¹m

gurubhyaå

gurubhy¹m

gurubhyaå

gurvoå

gurت¹m

gurvoå

guru¬u

Now, let us compare and contrast the forms of the u-k¹r¹nta nouns guru (mas.) and madhu (neu.):

Guru (mas.) = preceptor/teacher.

Cat./Dat.

gurave

Pañ./Abl.

guroå

¦a¬./Gen.

guroå

Sap./Loc.

gurau

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