Master Sanskrit Easily
kutsitaå,tasmai. ¶i¬yaå = censurable disciple, student. Dhan¹©hye=dhanena ¹©hyaå, tasmin= (rich, wealthy). Madyapaå= madya‚ pibati iti asau. Sadupade¶aå = samyak upade¶aå = good advice.
New Forms: Uptam= Nom. Sing. of the neu. P.P.P. upta derived from the root Vap (1 U.) ‘to sow, scatter, weave, cut, shave’. Munaye= Dat. Sing. of the i-k¹r¹nta noun Muni (m.). Tapasi = Loc. Sing. of the sa-k¹r¹nta noun Tapas (n.). Sarasaå = Gen. Sing. of the sa-k¹r¹nta noun Saras (n.).
Note: In the lessons so far we find that the forms of the ¹- k¹r¹nta, i-k¹r¹nta, »-k¹r¹nta and u-k¹r¹nta nouns, in masculine, feminine or neuter gender, such as k¬am¹ (fem.), vidy¹ (fem.), k»rti (fem.), duå¶»lat¹ (fem.), muni (mas.), siddhi (fem.), ¶uddhi (fem.), tÅpti (fem.), upa¶¹nti (fem.), vÅ¬I (fem.), mukti (fem.), kulastr» (fem.), maitr» (fem.), ¶r» (fem.), etc., have been used. Out of them we have seen the forms of the ¹-k¹r¹nta noun Ram¹ (fem.) by way of specimen, in the 8th lesson. Please, recollect them.
Now, let us see and compare the forms the two i-k¹r¹nta nouns Muni (mas.) and Pati (mas.), by way of specimen
and bhØpatau. Here we find a slight diversion from the general rule. In the Paªinian terminology, the general rule is called the Utsarga and the slight diversion from it, i.e. the option, as the Apav¹da. Such and apav¹da is found in the forms from the TÅt»y¹ to the Saptam» vibhaktis.
of). Pathikopabhoge tasmin.
Looking from the point of view of grammatical analysis, Muni+¹ (Intr. Sing.)> muni+ n+¹=munin¹ / Here the nu ¹gama(i.e. n) is inserted before the case termination ¹. In muni+e (Dat. Sing.) > mune+ e=munay+ e > munaye, the final i vowel of noun muni has been replaced by its guª¹de¶a (i.e , e), and as per the rules of coalescence e followed by any vowel is replaced by ay. In muni+as (Abl. & Gen. Sing.) > mune+s (by purva-rØpa ek¹de¶a e+a= e) and then s replaced by visarga (:= å)> muneå / In muni+i (Loc. Sing.) > mune+i (by guª¹de¶a)> mune+au (as per sv¹di-sandhi) > muna+au =munau. (The guª¹de¶a is due to the fact that in the P¹ªinian terminology, the terminations of the cases from Dative to Locative Singular, viz., ¡e, ¡as, ¡as, ¡i, are ¡it, i.e. having a ¡ as indicatory (it) sound. But in the case of the forms of the noun pati (mas.), pati+¹ > pat-y+¹ (by yaª-¹de¶a) = paty¹.; pati+as > > paty+us ( replacement of a-k¹ra of the termination) > patyuå (by u-k¹ra, of s by visarga). In pati+i > paty+i >(by ya ª¹de¶a)> pate+au (as per sv¹di-sandhi) > paty+au =patyau.
One should remember here that these forms are not formulated and popularized by anybody like a grammarian or so. Language is inherited from the mother and other elders. Grammarian’s task is only to offer an analytical outlook on the basis of a general rules and their exceptions, by separating the base, the adjuncts, the termination, and the various types of the internal modifications of vowels and consonants as per the rules of coalescence applicable in the situation. This analytical outlook is based on linguistic logic, and is meant rather for a sort of logical understanding, than for generating a headache. The important point to be noted is to recognize the forms, keep them and their implications mind, use them for expressing particular meaningful ideas, and understand the meanings when such usages are found in literature, and to translate accordingly.
Par¹rthe = parasya pathikaiå upabhogaå
(=for the sake