Master Sanskrit Easily
Recite aloud rhythmically the following verses along with their Sanskrit explanation, trying to grasp their meaning:
˜rutv¹ spÅ¬v¹ ca dÅ¬v¹ ca bhuktv¹ ghr¹tv¹ ca yo naraå / Na hÅ¬yati gl¹yati v¹ sa vijñeyo jitendriyaå // Yo naraå ¶rutv¹ (=having heard), na hÅ¬yati (=is not delighted), na gl¹yati (= is not dejected, does not become cast down), v¹ (=or=nor), sa jitendriyaå vijñeyaå (= should be known as one who has conquered the senses, is self-restrained) /
In this same manner formulate new sentences by using the other usages, viz., spÅ¬v¹ (=having touched), dÅ¬v¹ (=having seen), bhuktv¹(=having eaten, enjoyed), ghr¹tv¹ (=having smelt).
Vocabulary: ˜rutv¹ = ¶ravaªa‚ kÅtv¹ / SpÅ¬tv¹= spar¶a‚ kÅtv¹ / DÅ¬v¹ = dar¶a‚ kÅtv¹ / Bhuktv¹= bhoga‚ kÅtv¹, bhojana‚ kÅtv¹ / Ghr¹tv¹= ghr¹ªana‚ kÅtv¹ / Vijñeyaå = vijñ¹»yaå, vijñ¹tavyaå, jñ¹tavyaå / Jitendriyaå = jit¹ni indriy¹ªI yena saå / HÅ¬yati = har¬a‚ pr¹pnoti / Gl¹yati = gl¹ni‚ pr¹pnoti /
Grammatical Forms: HÅ¬yati = Pre. 3rd Per. Sing. of the verbal root hÅ¬ (4 P. ‘to be delighted’). Gl¹yati = Pre. 3rd Per. Sing. of the verbal root glai (1 P. ‘to be despondent’). Vijñeyaå = Nom. Sing. of the Pot. Part. vijñeya derived from the verbal root vi+jñ¹ (9 U. ‘to know’), formed by suffixing the termination yat, because the root is prefixed by vi.
M¹na‚ hitv¹ priyo nitya‚ k¹ma‚ jitv¹ sukh» bhavet / Krodha‚ hitv¹ nir¹b¹dhas tÅ¬ª¹‚ jitv¹ na tapyate // (Manu¬yaå) m¹na‚ = garva‚ (= pride), hitv¹ = tyaktv¹ (=having given up) nitya‚ =sad¹-k¹lam (=for all times, for ever), priyaå=vallabhaå (=beloved, lovable), bhavet (would become)/
LESSON 12 (Dv¹da¶aå p¹haå)
Now, when the forms of the Potential Participles ending in the terminations –aniyar and –yat, being denotative of mere action (bh¹va- v¹caka), they serve the same purpose as those ending in the termination
tavyat. And when these forms of the potential participles ending in
the above two terminations and derived from the verbal roots, are used adjectival objects in the sentences in the passive voice (karmaªi), they serve the purpose of the forms ending in the –tavya termonation.
The difference between the terminations –tavyat and –tavya is based on that of the accentuation in the archaic Vedic Sanskrit usages in ancient Br¹hmaªa works. In the classical Sanskrit, however, this difference has almost disappeared.
Ajñ¹te¬u na vi¶vasan»yam / N¹r»¬u mantro na prakaan»yaå / MØl¹nup¹lanena dhana‚ vyayan»yam / Virodhaå pronmØlan»yaå / Mah¹jano na vañcan»yaå / Guravo na khedan»y¹å / ¸va¶yake karmaªi na pram¹daå karaª»yaå / SØktam ukta‚ ripor api na dØ¬aª»yam / Dhana‚ bh¹ry¹-putr¹dh»na‚ na vidh¹n»yam / Ka¬e¬u puru¬a-vrata‚ na tyajan»yam / A-d¹na-tapaska‚ dina‚
Ajñ¹te¬u = ye pØrva
‚ na jñ¹t¹å te¬u = About those who are
u n k n o w n ; N a v i ¬ v a s a n » y a m = v i ¬ v ¹ s a å n a k a r t a v y a å = s h o u l d n o t b trusted. N¹r»¬u = n¹r»-jana-samak¬a‚=to a women, in front of the womanfolk. Mantraå= rahasya-yukt¹ kath¹= a secret matter. Na prakaan»yaå=should not be revealed. MØl¹nup¹lanena= mØlasya =of the principal amount. Anup¹lanena = rak¬aªa‚ kÅtv¹ =having preserved. Dhanam=wealth, property, money. Vyayan»yam=vyayaå kartavyaå=should be spent. Virodhaå=¶atrubh¹vaå=opposition, conflict. PronmØlan»yaå=prakÅ¬a‚ yath¹ sy¹t tath¹ (= in the best way, by all means), unmØlan»yaå=mØl¹t ucchedan»yaå=should be rooted out). Mah¹janaå=jan¹n¹‚ samud¹yaå= people at large. Na vañcan»yaå = vañcana‚ kartum na yogyaå= should not be deceived. Guravaå=guru-jan¹å=elders, preceptors, teachers. Na kheda»y¹å= e