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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

HYDERABAD

I Year B.Tech. ITT P C

2+1*04

APPLIED PHYSICS

UNIT I

BONDING IN SOLIDS : Introduction - Types of bonding in solids - Estimation of cohesive energy – Madelung constant.

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION: Introduction -Space lattice - Basis - Unit cell - Lattice parameter - Bravais lattices – Crystal systems -   Structure and packing fractions of Simple cubic - Body centered cubic – Face centered cubic crystals - Directions and planes in crystals – Miller indices - Separation between successive [h k l] planes - Diffraction of X-rays by crystal planes - Bragg’s law -  Laue method - Powder method.

UNIT II

PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS: Waves and particles - Planck’s quantum theory – de Broglie hypothesis – Matter waves - Davisson and Germer experiment – G. P. Thomson experiment – Heisenberg uncertainty principle - Schrödinger’s time independent wave equation - Physical significance of the wave function - Particle in one dimensional potential box.

UNIT III

ELECTRON THEORY OF METALS: Classical free electron theory - Mean free path - Relaxation time and drift velocity - Quantum free electron theory - Fermi-Dirac distribution (analytical) and its dependence on temparature  – Fermi energy – Electron scattering and resistance.

BAND THEORY OF SOLIDS:  Bloch theorem - Kronig-Penney model (qualitative treatment) - Origin of energy band formation in solids – Classification of materials into conductors, semi conductors & insulators - Concept of effective mass of an electron.

UNIT IV

DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES: Introduction - Dielectric constant - Electronic, ionic and orientational polarizations - Internal fields in solids – Clausius - Mossotti equation – Dielectrics in alternating  fields – Frequency dependence of the polarizability - Ferro and Piezo electricity.

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES : Permeability - Magnetization - Origin of magnetic moment – Classification of magnetic materials - Dia, para and ferro magnetism - Hysteresis curve - Soft and hard magnetic materials.

UNIT V

SEMICONDUCTORS : Introduction - Intrinsic semiconductor and carrier concentration – Equation for conductivity - Extrinsic semiconductor and carrier concentration - Drift and diffusion - Einstein’s equation - Hall effect – Direct & indirect band gap semiconductors.

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: General properties - Meissner effect - Penetration depth - Type I and Type II superconductors - Flux quantization – DC and AC Josephson effect –BCS Theory - Applications of superconductors.

UNIT VI

LASERS: Introduction - Characteristics of Lasers - Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation - Einstein’s coefficients - Population inversion - Ruby laser - Helium-Neon Laser – CO2 laser -Semiconductor Laser – Applications of lasers.

UNIT VII

FIBER OPTICS AND HOLOGRAPHY: Introduction - Principle of optical fiber - Acceptance angle and acceptance cone - Numerical aperture – Types of optical fibers and refractive index profiles – Attenuation in optical fibers - Application of optical fibers – Basic principles of holography – Construction and reconstruction of image on hologram – Applications of holography.

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