U.S. Technological, Economic, and SocialDevelopment for the 21st Century
belief thatpeoplearelesswilling to 'put in a hardday'swork' thantheyusedto be,butthis is scarcelyevidence." (Ibid., p. 166).
Denison'sanalysisleadshim to concludethat "it is quitepossiblethata decline in work effort contributedsomethin to the retardationof productivity,although this hasnot beendemonstratedbut it is unlikely to havebeena majorcauseof
the suddenlyretardedgrowth. ..after
1973." (Ibid., p. 135)
The difficulty in assessinthechangingqualityof the laborforce is, in part,a measuremenproblem. Denisonwrites that an "inability to answe the simple question-how harddopeoplework-and to comparedifferentplacesanddates, is probablythe mostseriousgap in my measureof laborunit." (Ibid.)
This difficulty is furtherillustratedby two studies,conductedat roughlythe sametime, early in 1981,that askedrathersimilar questionsof highly similar nationalsamplesof adultAmericans.The firstaskedrespondentto agreeordis- agreewith the statement,"Peopleshouldplacemoreemphasi onworkinghard and doing a good job than on what givesthem personalsatisfactionandplea- sure." Two-thirds of Americans(64 percent)agreed,while a minority(20 per- cent)disagreed,andthe restexpresse mixedfeelingsornoopinion.Thesecond asked,"Which do you think is more importantin life: working hardanddoing whatis expectedof you. ..or doingthethingsthatgive youpersonasatisfac- tion and pleasure?"While 38 percentstressedhard work, nearlyhalf (49 per- cent)of adult Americansstressedpersonalsatisfaction(14 percentevadedthe
questionby answering"both equal") (Public Opinion, 1981,p. 25).
Obviouslythis is anareain which findingsmightvary considerably,and not muchweightshouldbe givento anyone study. Still, if theavailablestudiesare put back to back, a suggestionof change arises. The researchfirm of Yankelovich,Skelleyand White, studyingworker motivations,discovere two groupsof workers--old-valuesandnew-value workers.Someof thedifferences
betweenthe two groupsare:
To theold-valuesgroup,externacuesareeverything.Theyderivetheir sens of howthey're doing and whatthey wantout of life from the waypeoplereactto them. With new-values people,thecuesareinternal. It's partof thefocusonself. Secondthework andthejob define old-valuespeople.The new-valuespeoplearedefinedby whatgivesthempsychickicks. ...
Third, respectfor authority is almost automaticamongold-valuespeople. Skepticism aboutauthorityandself-confidenc is partof thenew-value lifestyle--especiallywith respect to work. ...
Focuson thedepartmentthecompany,a largersocialunit areanexpectedpartof life for theold-valuespeople.Focuson theself is therule for thenew-valuepeople.(Skelley,1980,
Daniel Yankelovichhascalledthis new-valuesgroupthe "New Breed." He describestheir different motivation:
For theNew Breed,family andwork havegrownlessimportantandleisuremoreimportant. Whenwork andleisurearecomparedassource of satisfactio in oursurveys,only oneoutof