(U.S. Bureauof theCensus,1975,SeriesH41,599).Beyondelementaryand- later-more advancedsecondaryandcollegeeducation,wastechnicaltraining.
At first, curricula in civil
and otherbranchesof engineeringwereregardedas colleges, but this did not stunt their development.
Evenin thoseearlydays,oneway to overcom the snobbishnesof "cultural" parts of collegeswasto increas the theoretical,"basic science"part of engi- neeringtraining, eventhoughsciencehad notreacheda stagewhenit hadmany
In additionto technicaleducationatthecollegelevel, specializedschoolsfor specific industries,suchas textiles, were established,and vocationaltraining was introducedinto elementaryand high schools,with somesupportfrom the federal governmentafter 1917.
An industryis morethan machines,materials,andworkers;it is anorganiza- tion anda managemensystemof divisionof labor, authority,andcommunica- tion. This concepwasintroducedin a verypreliminaryfashionin the earlytex- tile mills; latertheideasof "scientific" managemenchampionedby Frederick W. Taylor in the 1890s,were introducedand advanced.A majorcorrective, viewing workersaspersonsandnotascogs,wasintroducedby EltonMayoand other foundersof the humanrelationsschool. It pointedto the importanceof taking into accounthe nonrational,personarelationsbetwee the foremenand the workers.Workers' bondsto eachotherwerealsoimportant;thesecouldbe mobilized to supportproduction-or, if ignoredand violated, could alienate workers.
The other elements of the model constitute the infrastructure. Creating an infrastructure suitable for a modem economy is essential if industrialization is to take off. However, before it canprovide for a modem, growing economy, for an age of mass production and mass consumption, one other element must be added: capital goods. These are assetsthat cannot themselves be consumed but serve in the production of consumer goods; they are the plants, their machinery,
mills, cranes, lathes, shipyards, assemblylines, and so on.
A society which consumes all or most of its product and does not setaside a growing proportion of its savings for capital goods and the infrastructure will not industrialize or will industrialize only to the extent that foreign investments and contributions will carry it.
While before1860muchof theAmericanindustrialeffortwaspiggybackedon the produceof field andforest, in the era that followed, newsourcesof power and importantinnovationsin iron and steelproductionwere majorfactors in