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arctic and temperate sediments.

A phytodetritus sedimentation event was simulated by adding 13C-labelled diatoms to replicate sediment cores retrieved from 1000 m in the FSC and E.Med. Additional cores without the addition of diatoms were maintained as controls. All cores were incubated at ambient temperature for 6 days. The response of the benthic community to the diatom addition was analysed in terms of respiration (accumulation of 13CO2 in the overlying water and oxygen consumption), uptake of the 13C-label into benthic fauna and incorporation of 13C into bacterial tissue.  Bacterial uptake was calculated indirectly by measuring the incorporation of 13C into bacterial phospholipids (PLFAs).

Immunodetection in the marine field.

Garet E, Pérez D, Mantilla L, Calvo J, Lorenzo S, Fuentes J, González-Fernández A

Immunology Laboratory, Universidad de Vigo , Edificio de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus Lagoas Marcosende,  36310, Vigo, Spain.

The innovative technique of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) developed by Köhler and Milstein in 1975 has revolutionized not only the biomedical field, but also other sciences. Here, we show some examples of its potential application in Marine Biology and Ecology, especially in the mussel sector and with marine toxins. There are at least three aspects in which immunology promises to be a powerful tool for helping to optimize the yield of this activity: 1/ marine toxins produced during blooms of toxic microalgae species, which force a halt in the production of bivalves. The use of mAbs to improve the monitoring of toxic algae blooms could minimize such problems.  2/ The detection of toxins in the bivalves. Although the most commonly used method, internationally, is a bioassay (injection of mice with bivalve extracts), immunoassays using mAbs against the toxins may be an alternative method. 3/ The development of immunological techniques for an accurate identification of mussel larvae: the mAbs can distinguish mussel larvae from other bivalve larvae (very similar in morphology), allowing analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the larvae with the aim of optimizing the production of mussels. Moreover, the use of immunological techniques is helping to improve species discrimination, fishing control, the handling of aquaculture, toxin controls and ecological studies, such as those about the immune system of diverse marine organisms.

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