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Here we have developed DNA-based molecular assays for the detection and surveillance of the different Mytilus species in Scotland. We have found M. trossulus to have a relatively restricted distribution in Scottish waters. We have explored several potential management strategies, based on differences in the settlement preferences of M. trossulus and M. edulis and their spawning asynchrony, aimed at favouring M. edulis production at mixed-species sites. However, close similarity between these species and the impossibility of controlling important environmental and biological factors influencing mussel spat settlement and spawning, suggest such strategies to be too unpredictable for effective use by the industry. Due to differences in regulations regarding farming and management of native versus alien species, we are also currently establishing the origin of M. trossulus using a phylogeographic approach.

Further management approaches such as the elaboration of a code of good practices for the industry and fallowing of M. trossulus aquaculture sites are currently being considered. This project was undertaken in close collaboration between science, government and industry. It promoted the establishment of collaborative research and management, making a valuable contribution towards the sustainability of the Scottish shellfish industry.

Restoring sea fisheries: Integrating complex population structures, habitat dependencies, trophic realities and keystone species.

Recksiek C W1,  Appeldoorn R S2 , Erzini K3, Volson B1, Lawson D D4, Downing S L1, Lankin K F1, Reich D A1, & Grant J S1

1Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Rhode Island, Kingston  RI 02881  USA

2Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez  PR 00681-9013  USA

3Centro de Ciências do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas 8005-139 Faro 4Protected Resources Division, NOAA Fisheries Southwest Region, 501 W. Ocean Boulevard, Suite 4200, Long Beach  CA 90803  USA

Marine fisheries have been adversely affected by ecosystem-level phenomena caused by fishing, yet these impacts are not generally considered in the management process.  Traditional fisheries management is heavily based on models that ignore biological factors such as spawning behaviours, habitat and forage dependencies, and the apparent structure of marine ecosystems before human involvement. This paper proposes a necessary set of basic conservation principles that must be satisfied before exploitation

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