Templeton Emerging Markets Fund
Notes to Financial Statements (continued)
ORGANIZATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued)
Financial Instrument Valuation (continued)
foreign market close and the latest indications of value at the close of the NYSE. In order to minimize the potential for these differences, the investment manager monitors price movements following the close of trading in foreign stock markets through a series of country specific market proxies (such as baskets of American Depositary Receipts, futures contracts and exchange traded funds). These price movements are measured against established trigger thresholds for each specific market proxy to assist in determining if an event has occurred that may call into question the reliability of the values of the foreign securities held by the Fund. If such an event occurs, the securities may be valued using fair value procedures, which may include the use of independent pricing services. At August 31, 2011, a market event occurred resulting in a portion of the secu- rities held by the Fund being valued using fair value procedures.
b. Foreign Currency Translation
Portfolio securities and other assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate of such currencies against U.S. dollars on the date of valuation. The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange contracts to facilitate transactions denominated in a foreign currency. Purchases and sales of securities, income and expense items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect on the transaction date. Portfolio securities and assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies contain risks that those currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar. Occasionally, events may impact the availability or reliability of foreign exchange rates used to convert the U.S. dollar equivalent value. If such an event occurs, the foreign exchange rate will be valued at fair value using procedures established and approved by the Fund’s Board of Trustees.
The Fund does not separately report the effect of changes in foreign exchange rates from changes in market prices on securities held. Such changes are included in net realized and unrealized gain or loss from investments on the Statement of Operations.
Realized foreign exchange gains or losses arise from sales of foreign currencies, currency gains or losses realized between the trade and settlement dates on securities transactions and the difference between the recorded amounts of dividends, interest, and foreign withholding taxes and the U.S. dollar equivalent of the amounts actually received or paid. Net unrealized foreign exchange gains and losses arise from changes in foreign exchange rates on foreign denominated assets and liabilities other than investments in securities held at the end of the reporting period.
c. Income and Deferred Taxes
It is the Fund’s policy to qualify as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code. The Fund intends to distribute to shareholders substantially all of its taxable income and net realized gains to relieve it from federal income and excise taxes. As a result, no provision for U.S. federal income taxes is required. The Fund files U.S. income tax returns as well as tax returns
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