Templeton Emerging Markets Fund
Notes to Financial Statements (continued)
ORGANIZATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued)
Income and Deferred Taxes (continued)
in certain other jurisdictions. The Fund records a provision for taxes in its financial statements including penalties and interest, if any, for a tax position taken on a tax return (or expected to be taken) when it fails to meet the more likely than not (a greater than 50% probability) thresh- old and based on the technical merits, the tax position may not be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. As of August 31, 2011, and for all open tax years, the Fund has determined that no provision for income tax is required in the Fund’s financial statements. Open tax years are those that remain subject to examination and are based on each tax jurisdiction statute of limitation.
The Fund may be subject to foreign taxation related to income received, capital gains on the sale of securities and certain foreign currency transactions in the foreign jurisdictions in which it invests. Foreign taxes, if any, are recorded based on the tax regulations and rates that exist in the foreign markets in which the Fund invests. When a capital gain tax is determined to apply the Fund records an estimated deferred tax liability for unrealized gains on these securities in an amount that would be payable if the securities were disposed of on the valuation date.
d. Security Transactions, Investment Income, Expenses and Distributions
Security transactions are accounted for on trade date. Realized gains and losses on security trans- actions are determined on a specific identification basis. Estimated expenses are accrued daily. Dividend income is recorded on the ex-dividend date except that certain dividends from foreign securities are recognized as soon as the Fund is notified of the ex-dividend date. Distributions to shareholders are recorded on the ex-dividend date and are determined according to income tax regulations (tax basis). Distributable earnings determined on a tax basis may differ from earnings recorded in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. These differences may be permanent or temporary. Permanent differences are reclassi- fied among capital accounts to reflect their tax character. These reclassifications have no impact on net assets or the results of operations. Temporary differences are not reclassified, as they may
reverse in subsequent periods.
e. Accounting Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
f. Guarantees and Indemnifications
Under the Fund’s organizational documents, its officers and trustees are indemnified by the Fund against certain liabilities arising out of the performance of their duties to the Fund. Additionally,