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would be gained if that information were available. Examples are a lower variability and a factor of safetY, leading to a more economical design.

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Although white topping overlays have been used for many years, many questions remain about their proper use. This synthesis may serve as a tool to better understand the various issues, although the value of local experience cannot be overstated. Whitetopping projects can be used with increasing success as engineers draw from the experience of the design, construction, and performance of existing overlays in their areas.

Finally, there are some key factors to consider when selecting, designing, and constructing a UFW or TWT project, including

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Distress mode and severity of the existing HMA pavement,

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Stiffness of the existing HMA pavement,

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Proper thickness and joint design for the UTW or TWT,

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Surface preparation of the HMA before overlay (commonly milled and cleaned),

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Fiber reinforcement for UTW and possibly TWT concrete,

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Proper joint sawing depth and timing, and Proper curing practices.

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