problem confounds any paradigm vulnerable to rejection, does not exist. Dr. Milgrom began his
novel idea because he could not accept the grounds for dark matter.11 But the introduction of an
unexplained force or particle is not new in scientific progress, and so MOND remains one of
several clever ideas, not a threat to existing paradigms.
While promises of scientific revolution and upheaval by a lone scientist make for
publicity and sales, it has little to do with the actual practice of science as a social endeavor.
Indeed, it appears that even Dr. Milgrom is quite candid about the status of his theory, as a good
scientist would be. What is remarkable about Kuhn’s thesis is that is appeals both to the
scientist’s mandate of disinterested analysis as well as the innately human love for inspiring