For discussion of postwar urban change, see Robert A. Beauregard, Voices of
Decline: The Postwar Fate of US Cities (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1993); Raymond A. Mohl, "The Transformation of Urban America since the Second World War," in Robert B. Fairbanks and Kathleen Underwood, eds., Essays on Sunbelt Cities and Recent Urban America (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1990), 8-32; Arnold R. Hirsch and Raymond A. Mohl, eds., Urban Policy in Twentieth-Century America (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1993).
2 On the "second ghetto" concept, see Arnold R. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 3 Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), 46. 4 Catherine Bauer, "Cities in Flux," American Scholar, 13 (Winter 1943-1944), 70-84; Roger W. Lotchin, ed., The Martial Metropolis: U.S. Cities in War and Peace (New York: Praeger, 1984), 135, 166-167; Quintard Taylor, The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 Through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994), 159; Philip J. Funigiello, The Challenge to Urban Liberalism: Federal-City Relations during World War II (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1978); Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Daniel Kryder, Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 208-242; Dominic }. Capeci, Jr., The Harlem Riot of 1943 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977); Dominic J. Capeci, Jr., Race Relations in Wartime Detroit: The Sojourner Truth Housing Controversy of 1942 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984); Harvard Sitkoff, "The Detroit Race Riot of 1943," Michigan History, 53 (Fall 1969), 183-206; Harvard Sitkoff, "Racial Militance and Interracial Violence in the Second World War," Journal of American History, 58 (December 1971), 661-681; Eduardo Obregon Pagan, "Los Angeles Geopolitics and the Zoot Suit Riot, 1943," Social Science History, 24 (Spring 2000), 223- 256.
5 Kenneth T. Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985); Rosalyn Baxandall and Elizabeth Ewen, Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened (New York: Basic Books, 2000); Tom Martinson, American Dreamscape: The Pursuit of Happiness in Postwar Suburbia (New York: Carroll and Graf, 2000); Barbara M. Kelly, Expanding the Dream: Building and Rebuilding Levittown (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993); Peter O. Muller, Contemporary Suburban America (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981); Marc A. Weiss, The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and Urban Land Planning (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987).
6 George Sternlieb and James W. Hughes, "The Changing Demography of the Central City," Scientific American, 243 (August 1980), 40-45. On the Sunbelt, see Richard M. Bernard and Bradley R. Rice, eds., Sunbelt Cities: Politics and Growth since