World War II (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983); Raymond A. Mohl, ed., Searchingfor the Sunbelt (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990); Carl Abbott, The Metropolitan Frontier: Cities in the Modern American West (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993). For the northern counterpart, see Richard M. Bernard, ed., Snowbelt Cities: Metropolitan Politics in the Northeast and Midwest since World War II (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990). 7 On black suburbanization, see Andrew Wiese, "The Other Suburbanites: African American Suburbanization in the North before 1950," Journal of American History, 85 (March 1999), 1495-1524; Reynolds Farley, "The Changing Distribution of Negroes within Metropolitan Areas: The Emergence of Black Suburbs," American Journal of Sociology, 75 (January 1970), 333-351; Harold X. Connolly, "Black Movement into the Suburbs: Suburbs Doubling Their Black Populations during the 1960s," Urban Affairs Quarterly, 9 (September 1973), 91-111; William H. Wilson, Hamilton Park: A Planned Black Community in Dallas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998). On aspects of black migration, see Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America (New York: Knopf, 1991); Daniel M. Johnson and Rex R. Campbell, Black Migration in America: A Social Demographic History (Durham: Duke University Press, 1981); John D. Reid, "Black Urbanization of the South," Phylon, 35 (September 1974), 259-267.
8 Racial statistics of American cities, displayed in Table I, are derived from U.S. Census of Population, 1940, Tables 35 and 36; U.S. Census of Population, 1960, Tables 44 and 45. For demographic and residential segregation statistics, see also Karl E. Taeuber and Alma F. Taeuber, Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1965); Donald O. Cowgill, "Trends in Residential Segregation of Non-whites in American Cities, 1940-1950," American Sociological Review, 21 (February 1956), 43-47; Sorenson et al., "Indexes of Racial Residential Segregation for 109 Cities in the United States, 1940-1970," Sociological Focus, 8 (1975), 125-142; Housing and Home Finance Agency, Housing of the Nonwhite Population, 1940 to 1950 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952).
9 For the outlines of the dual housing market, consult Robert C. Weaver, The Negro Ghetto (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1948); Charles Abrams, Forbidden Neighbors: A Study of Prejudice in Housing (New York: Harper, 1955); Robert E. Forman, Black Ghettos, White Ghettos, and Slums (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971); George W. Grier, "The Negro Ghetto and Federal Housing Policy," Law and Contemporary Problems, 32 (Spring 1967), 550-560; Harold M. Baron, "The Web of Urban Racism," in Louis L. Knowles and Kenneth Prewitt, eds., Institutional Racism in America (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969), 134-176. On "kitchenettes," see Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle-Class Reform, Chicago, 1880-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 197-198.
10 Winston Moore, et al., "Woodlawn: The Zone of Destruction," in J. John Palen. ed., City Scenes: Problems and Prospects (Boston: Little, Brown, 1977), 260. See also Michael Sumichrast and Norman Farquar, Demolition and Other Factors in Housing Replacement Demand (Washington, D.C.: Homebuilding Press, 1967), 47-48; Marc A. Weiss, "The Origins and Legacy of Urban Renewal," in Pierre Clavel et al., Urban and Regional Planning in an Age of Austerity (New York:Pergamon Press, 1980), 53; Peter