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2000), 158-189; Arnold R. Hirsch, "Searching for a 'Sound Negro Policy': A Racial Agenda for the Housing Acts of 1949 and 1954," Housing Policy Debate, 11, no.2 ("2000), 393-441; Arnold R. Hirsch, "Choosing Segregation: Federal Housing Policy Between Shelley and Brown," in Bauman et al., From Tenements to the Taylor Homes,


16 Clement E. Vose, Caucasians Only: The Supreme Court, the NAACP, and the Restrictive Covenant Cases (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959); Jack Greenberg, Race Relations and American Law (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959); Christopher Robert Reed, The Chicago NAACP and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership, 1910-1966 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 147-156, 167-174. 17 On the concept of "pioneering" on racial frontiers, see L. K. Northwood and Ernest A. T. Barth, Urban Desegregation: Negro Pioneers and Their White Neighbors (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965). A few liberal white communities were accepting of the black pioneers. See Philip A. Johnson, Call Me Neighbor, Call Me Friend: The Case History of the Integration of a Neighborhood on Chicago's South Side (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965); Norman Bradburn et al., Side By Side: Integrated Neighborhoods in America (Chicago; Quadrangle, 1971). 18 For the racial violence of this earlier period, see Elliott M. Rudwick, Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2,1917 (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964); Vincent P. Franklin, The Philadelphia Race Riot of 1918," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 99 (July 1975), 336-350; William M. Tuttle, Jr., Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (New York: Atheneum, 1970); Arthur I. Waskow, From Race Riot to Sit- in: 1919 and the 1960s (New York: Doubleday, 1966); David Allan Levine, Internal Combustion: the Races in Detroit, 1915-1926 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976); Herbert Shapiro, White Violence and Black Response: From Reconstruction to Montgomery (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988). For the linkage between black migration to the cities and the increasing use of restrictive covenants, see Jones-Correa, "The Origins and Diffusion of Racial Restrictive Covenants," 541-568. 19 Shapiro, White Violence and Black Response, 377; Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto, 40- 67, quotation on p. 63. The most comprehensive study of the neighborhood race wars is Stephen Grant Meyer, As Long As They Don't Move Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflicts in American Neighborhoods (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000). 20 Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto, 52; Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), 211, 233; Bauman, Public Housing, Race, and Renewal, 161; Mohl, "Making the Second Ghetto in Metropolitan Miami," 395-427. 21 National Guardian, August 1, 8, September 5, 1949; Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto, 56-60, 73. 22 National Guardian, July 18, October 3, 1951; Pittsburgh Courier, August 21, 1951; Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto, 53-55, 62-63, 89-91; Charles Abrams, "The Time Bomb That Exploded in Cicero," Commentary, 12 (November 1951), 407-414; Meyer, As Long As They Don't Move Next Door, 118-119. 23 National Guardian, March 22, April 5, May 17, December 6, 1950; Pittsburgh Courier, March 18, 1950; Sugrue, "Crabgrass-Roots Politics," 557. 24 National Guardian, September 12, 1949; Pittsburgh Courier, February 25, 1950, July 28, August 4, August 11, 1951; Charles Abrams, "Rats Among the Palm Trees," The


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