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Caroline Schaerer and Andrea Baranzini

3.2

Exposure dimension

The exposure dimension of residential segregation measures the degree of poten- tial contact, or potential interaction, between members of the same social group, or between members of different social groups, within the different sub-areas of a region. Therefore, rather than gauging segregation as a departure from “evenness”, exposure indices attempt to measure the experience of segregation as felt by the average minority or majority group members. Indeed, minority members can be evenly distributed among residential areas of a region, but experience little exposure to majority members. Bell (1954) proposed an exposure index that can be applied either in a single group or in two-groups case, and is calculated as follows:

n i =1 Xix

*

xi xi ⎢⎥

× 100

n i=1 X ix

*

yi xi ⎢⎥

× 100

x

P=

x

x

P=

y

(3)

(4)

The exposure index varies between 0 (no exposure) and 100 (complete exposure). In the single group case, equation (3), the exposure index measures the probability that a randomly drawn member of social group x shares a sub-area with another member of its own social group. Thus for instance, from Table 2 we can note that in both

Foreigners

34.73

29.11

41.79

37.39

Individuals with low education

26.57

26.84

31.02

31.05

Individuals with high education

56.20

62.80

58.93

65.41

Foreigners with low education level

13.72

12.92

19.61

19.41

Foreigners with high education level

14.62

11.48

18.68

14.80

Swiss with low education

13.71

14.82

17.98

19.36

Swiss with high education

42.38

51.49

46.18

54.75

Table 2

Single group index

47.61

34.43

40.44

50.69

39.18

48.87

49.57

41.15

48.20

Exposure index for Geneva and Zurich at the district and hectare levels

Two-groups index Swiss with high education with respect to Foreigners with low education level Foreigners with high education level

Swiss with low education Data source: Swiss Population Census 2000.

40.01 41.45 41.59

District Geneva

Zurich

Hectare Geneva

Zurich

© Seismo Verlag Zürich

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