Caroline Schaerer and Andrea Baranzini
except for foreigners with low education level, who possess the lowest probability of sharing a hectare with the Swiss people with comparable education level.
In Figure 4, we illustrate the spatial distribution of the two-group exposure index between individuals with high and those with low education level by district and hectare in Geneva and Zurich. Again, the sum of the indexes reported in Figure 4 at the district or hectare level corresponds to the two-group index in Table 2. The figure highlights more clearly that individuals with high education level are exposed to individuals with low education level only in specific parts of the areas, which corresponds to the city centre in Geneva, while more in the border in Zurich.
To further investigate the residential socio-economic environment of the in- dividuals according to their origin and education level, in Table 3 we compare the average composition of the neighbourhoods inhabited by the different categories of individuals. We note that in Geneva, Swiss people live in a hectare that is composed on average by 71% of Swiss and 29% of foreigners, while the foreigners live in a hectare populated on average by 58% of Swiss and 42% of foreigners. Given the overall percentage of Swiss and foreigners in Geneva (i. e. 67% of Swiss and 33% of foreigners), the over-exposure of the foreigners to other foreigners is thus equal to about 9%. Values of similar magnitude are found for Zurich.
Standard deviation in parentheses. Data source: Swiss Population Census 2000.
Over-exposure to own-group
Hectare average composition for individual of different origin
The same type of comparison can be performed between individuals of different education levels. As reported in Table 4, in both areas, individuals with low education level live in a hectare that is composed on average by about 37% of individuals with the same education attainment (respectively by 63% of high educated individuals). In comparison, an individual with a high education attainment is more likely to live in a neighbourhood populated by 72% of individuals with high education level. Given the overall composition of low vs. high educated individuals in the two areas, the over-exposure to the own-group amounts to about 6% for the individuals with a low education level, and to about 3% for the individuals with high education level, in both Geneva and Zurich.
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