Where and How Do Swiss and Foreigners Live? Segregation in the Geneva and Zurich Housing Markets
portion of them only have a small kitchen. Relatively more Swiss live in publicly owned building and less in privately owned ones. It is also interesting to note that foreigners are on average exposed to a slightly higher daily road traffic noise level (66 dB(A)) than the Swiss (65 dB(A)), both averages exceeding the legal limit of 60 dB(A) set in the Swiss noise regulation for residential areas (Swiss Noise Abate- ment Ordinance 1986, art. 43). Concerning the neighbourhood composition characteristics, foreigners live on average in neighbourhoods with a relatively higher proportion of foreigners, as already discussed in the previous section.
The second sample segmentation reported in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6 is between the low and high educated individuals. Again, a clear pattern appears between the dwellings inhabited by the low vs. high educated individuals. Indeed, on average households with low education level live in higher buildings, constructed between 1946 and 1980. They live in smaller dwellings, both in terms of number of rooms and surface per room, and have a higher occupation rate of the dwell- ing surface. Comparatively fewer of the low educated individuals have a regular kitchen, possess gas heating and live in an attic. Interestingly, more of them live in publicly owned building and less in privately owned ones. They show a higher dwelling turnover rate, are located in higher density neighbourhoods and are more exposed to road traffic noise.
The last segmentation of interest compares the dwellings occupied by Swiss with low education level to those of foreigners with low education level. The statis- tics, reported in the last two columns of Table 6, shows that among the individuals with low education level, the foreigners live in dwellings of relatively worse quality. In fact, we can observe a similar pattern as with the segmentation between low vs. high educated individuals.
Housing conditions in Zurich
For Zurich, we performed the same segmentations as for Geneva, i. e. based on the origin, the education attainment, and the origin of individuals with low education level. The results are presented in Table 7, with the means that are statistically dif- ferent between the two samples of each segment again highlighted in bold.
Considering first the segmentation by origin, reported in columns 2 and 3, we observe as in Geneva that Swiss people in Zurich live in comparatively larger dwellings in terms of number of rooms and surface per person. As in Geneva, we observe that Swiss people occupy dwellings of comparatively higher standard and that more of them have been living in the same dwelling for at least 5 years. Concerning the neighbourhood and environmental variables, the foreigners live on average in neighbourhoods with a higher population density, populated by a relatively higher proportion of foreigners, and are exposed on average to a higher road traffic noise level.