Caroline Schaerer and Andrea Baranzini
location choices (see e. g. Scheiner and Kasper, 2003, for a discussion). Piguet (2004) explains that since 1950, Switzerland has experienced two periods of high immigration flows, the first from 1958 to 1967, and the second during the 1980s. In both migration waves, Schuler (1999) distinguishes immigrants based on their origin and social category. On the one side, those from Western and Northern European countries, with a relatively high education level, and on the other side, the migrants from Southern European countries, and lately from ex-Yugoslavia and Turkey, with comparatively lower socio-economic characteristics. Piguet (2004) shows how immigration in Switzerland has been highly influenced by foreign policy measures like for e. g. delivery of residential permits, cantonal immigration quotas and asylum policy. With respect to the international literature, which mostly refers to the US, our approach has therefore to account for several peculiarities of the Swiss migration flows and foreign population, such as diversity of origin, education level or type of residential permit.
In spite of the political debates about the presence of foreigners and related migration policy in Switzerland, at our knowledge, the literature on residential seg- regation is relatively scarce, even at a descriptive level. For instance, using the 1990 Swiss Population Census, Huissoud et al. (1999) study segregation in major Swiss urban areas, among which Geneva and Zurich. Heye and Leuthold (2004) analyze residential segregation in the city of Zurich and its agglomeration. However, they are primarily concerned with the dynamics of migration in urban areas in relation to the socio-cultural neighbourhoods.
In addition to measuring segregation, a few studies highlight the residential conditions of specific population groups, as mentioned by Wanner, 2004. For instance, based on the 1980 Swiss Population Census, Arend (1991) shows that some underprivileged guest workers (Italians, Spaniards, Yugoslavians, Turks, Por- tuguese, and Greeks) live in housing of poorer condition than Swiss and privileged Western foreigners (Germans, French, Austrians, British, Americans and Dutch). In a companion paper, we analyse the impacts of discrimination and prejudice on the Geneva and Zurich housing markets, applying the hedonic approach (see Baranzini et al., 2008).
In this paper, we provide for additional measures of segregation and discrimina- tion in the cantons of Geneva and Zurich rental markets. While considering these two major Swiss urban areas will allow inter-regional comparisons, the choice of Geneva and Zurich is also dictated by their similar morphology (end of lake loca- tion), their world-top ranking in terms of quality of life, the relatively large rental market, and by the fact that for both we can access several rich databases, including Geographical Information System (GIS) data. The structure of the paper is the following. In Section 2, we present the context and the data. In section 3, we cal- culate different segregation indices in order to better characterise segregation in the
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