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Single group index Foreigners Individuals with low education Individuals with high education Foreigners with low education level Foreigners with high education level Swiss with low education Swiss with high education

District Geneva


Hectare Geneva


13.41 11.13 8.44 17.59 10.33 5.92 7.86

13.75 14.15 14.19 20.17 3.67 6.90 12.67

30.44 24.51 20.85 35.63 23.68 22.07 21.22

32.90 25.64 25.34 39.56 22.89 23.92 23.58

Two-groups index Swiss with low education with respect to Foreigners with low education level Foreigners with high education level Swiss with high education

14.18 13.01 8.44

13.42 7.70 11.59

36.34 32.27 23.32

40.44 33.98 26.10

Data source: Swiss Population Census 2000.

Zurich, and both at the hectare and district levels, Swiss with low education share the least common districts and hectares with low educated foreigners. On the contrary, Swiss with low education are closest to Swiss with high education level in Geneva and Zurich (and to foreigners with high education level in the Zurich districts). From Table 1, we can conclude that the values of the dissimilarity indexes are simi- lar in Geneva and Zurich and, as expected, the values obtained at the hectare level are higher relative to the indexes at the district level. In addition, we note that in both areas, foreigners with low education levels are the most segregated both with respect to the entire population and to Swiss people with low education level. Also based on the Swiss Federal Population Census 2000, Wanner (2004) calculates a dissimilarity index for foreigners at the level of the Zurich and Geneva agglomera- tions of respectively 16 and 19, which is comparable to the values reported here at the district level. In comparison to the segregation measures for US or Western European cities, the dissimilarity index between Swiss and foreigners is very low (see e. g. Glaeser and Vidgor, 2001, for values of dissimilarity index between white and nonwhites in the major US cities; Parkinson et al., 2006, for values of the index between white and nonwhites, white and Asian and white and blacks in English cities). As emphasized by Arend (1991), the relatively small size of the Swiss cities limits the potential of segmenting population in clearly defined neighbourhoods, which might explain this relatively low level of segregation. Interestingly however, Wanner (2004) compares the evolution of the index of dissimilarity between Swiss and foreigners in 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 and finds a significant increase of

© Seismo Verlag Zürich


Caroline Schaerer and Andrea Baranzini

Table 1

Index of dissimilarity for Geneva and Zurich at the district and hectare levels

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