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ABSTRACTS continued

serving in the UK Armed Forces on 31 March 2003 but who were

randomly selected and invited to participate. The response rate was

individuals who responded to the survey and who have been

lower rank, being unmarried, having low educational attainment, a history of childhood adversity, and exposure to potentially traumatiz- ing events, in particular being deployed to a ‘forward’ area in close contact with the enemy. Appraisals of the experience as involving threat to one’s own life and a perception that work in theatre was above an individual’s trade and experience were strongly associated with PTSD symptoms, as were low morale and poor social support within the unit and non-receipt of a home- coming brief. These results raise the possibility that there are

found between duration of deployment and severe alcohol problems. Exposure to combat partly accounted for these associations. The associations between number of deployments in the past three years and mental disorders were less consistent than those related to duration of deployment. PTSD was also associated with a mis- match between expectations about the duration of deployment and the reality. [abstract adapted]

Schell, T. L., & Marshall, G. N. (2008). Survey of individuals previously deployed for OEF/OIF. (Eds.), Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery, Santa Monica, CA: RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research. The investigators conducted a large population-based survey of

leadership, and preparing combatants for their role in theatre which

reachable by random digit dialing at a landline phone number within the US. The sampling strategy targeted 24 geographic areas that included domestic military bases. A total of 1,965 respondents were screened for combat exposure, military-related PTSD (past 30

Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 2141-2148. The Department of Defense initiated population-wide screening at 2 time points immediately on return from deployment and 3 to 6 months later to measure the mental health needs among soldiers returning

depression. The three conditions tended to co-occur. Risk factors for PTSD included status as a member of the National Guard or Reserves, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, more lengthy deploy- ment, and more extensive exposure to combat. Of those with

care. Barriers to care included, in rough order, concerns about

Assessment (PDHA) and a Post-Deployment Health Re- Assessment (PDHRA) with a median of 6 months between the 2 assessments. Soldiers reported more mental health concerns and

and friends, concerns about the effectiveness or side effects of treatments, and logistics (e.g., cost). [Abstracted by Editor]

Seal, K. H., Bertenthal, D., Miner, C. R., Sen, S., & Marmar, C.

Bringing the war back home: Mental health disorders among 103,788 US veterans returning from Iraq and Afghani- stan seen at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Archives

concerns, yet very few were referred to alcohol treatment. Most soldiers who used mental health services had not been referred,

of Internal Medicine, 167,

US veterans separated from

the screening. Although soldiers were much more likely to report

between September 30, 2001 (US invasion of Afghanistan) and September 30, 2005, were studied. The prevalence and clinical circumstances of subgroups at greatest risk for mental health

by the time they took the PDHRA. There was no direct relationship of referral or treatment with symptom improvement. The large clinical burden recently reported among veterans presenting to Veterans Affairs facilities seems to exist within months of returning home, highlighting the need to enhance military mental health care during this period. [abstract adapted]

psychosocial diagnoses. Mental health diagnoses were detected

Rona, R. J., Fear, N. T., Hull, L., Greenberg, N., Earnshaw, M.,

health clinics, mostly primary care settings. The youngest group of

Mental health consequences of overstretch in the UK armed forces: First phase of a cohort study. British Medical Journal, 335, 603-610. A randomly chosen

receiving mental health or PTSD diagnoses compared with veterans 40 years or older. Co-occurring mental health diagnoses and psychosocial problems were detected early and in primary care

was assessed. Personnel who were deployed for 13 months or

seen at VA facilities. [abstract adapted]

PTSD, show caseness on the General Health Questionnaire, and

Smith, T. C., Ryan, M. A. K., Wingard, D. L., Slymen, D. J., Sallis,

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