nel’s ceiling. By automatically opening at the right places in case of a fire, these events en- able the ventilators to draw off 150 cubic me- ters of air per second through a discharge chimney.
The escape tunnel also has ventilators that are operated in order to increase the differ- ence in air pressure between the two tunnels.
Engineers installed this mechanism to pre- vent smoke from entering the escape tunnel when its doors are open.
All of these safety measures are managed through a higher-level control system, which has access to the controls of the subsystems. The ventilation, lighting and tunnel closing systems are automatic, but the control center
Answers in the Wind
Offshore wind parks are playing an increasingly important role in power generation. Siemens has developed a concept that could enable them to operate much more efficiently.
a he world market for wind power currently m o u n t s t o 6 b i l l i o n e u r o s a n d i s g r o w i n g T at about 13 percent annually. In Germany, wind energy, which has a power output of al- most 17,000 megawatts (MW), accounts for four percent of the country’s electric energy production, and that figure is rising. By 2030, plans call for the installation of offshore wind parks on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea that will generate some 20,000 to 25,000 MW. Lo- cated far from towns, they offer a range of advantages.
A measuring station installed on the North Sea in 2003 has shown that prevailing winds
A wind park in the sea near Nysted, Denmark. In the future, a net- work of sensors could further increase en- ergy yields and lower operating costs.
have speeds of more than four meters per second — the minimum wind speed the ro- tors require — 95 percent of the time. For three months of the year, the winds are so strong that the facility reaches its maximum rated output; inland wind parks enjoy similar conditions for only six weeks a year.
In 2004, Siemens Power Generation (PG) purchased Danish wind turbine manufacturer Bonus Energy A/S, thereby strengthening its stake in the wind energy market. Bonus En- ergy has installed more than 5,000 turbines in over 20 countries with a combined output of more than 3,000 MW, including the world’s largest offshore wind park 10 kilome- ters south of Nysted. The total output of all 72 wind turbines in this installation is around 166 MW, enough power to cover the needs of 145,000 households.
A study carried out by the German Energy Agency in 2005 shows how the energy gen- erated by the offshore wind park could be ef- fectively fed into the grid. For example, the high-voltage grid could be expanded by 850 km, or storage stations could be built at sea with a shared cable connecting them with the coast. Servicing the windmills poses a partic- ular challenge, because it’s difficult, expen- sive and sometimes impossible to make re- pairs on the high seas. As a result, offshore wind turbines have longer down times than those on land and are thus less efficient. It’s therefore particularly important to identify malfunctions in offshore parks at an early stage — ideally, before a breakdown occurs.
at police headquarters can intervene at any time. “Without a video analysis system, the other systems would require a much longer reaction time,” says Ludwig. “It gives us infor- mation at an early stage so that we can inter- vene in the right way to avert a catastrophe.” Karl Rohrer is also satisfied with the system. “So far, we’ve had practically no false alarms,” he says. Even more to the point, there have been no major accidents.■ Evdoxia Tsakiridou
Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) has developed a concept for a smart wind park equipped with a sensor network that could monitor itself autonomously. Here, wirelessly networked sensors located on the masts and rotor blades or inside the turbines would measure factors such as wind force, wind di- rection and vibrations. A computer on each mast would evaluate the data. These comput- ers would diagnose malfunctions and actively intervene via actuators. On the basis of wind force readings, the system could predict sud- den gusts of wind and make the necessary adjustments to the rotor blades, thus reduc- ing the strain on the turbine.
Because the computers on the masts would communicate with one another, indi- vidual sensor data could be used by the entire park. The turbines in the first row to be hit by the wind would transmit their information to the windmills in the rows behind so that the latter could make anticipatory adjustments for optimized operation. Such a system would help to optimize wind park management in other ways. “With this intelligent control sys- tem, the windmills in the first row could be adjusted to provide better flow properties for the turbines behind them,” says Prof. Martin Greiner from CT. “As a result, the power out- put of the wind park as a whole would be higher than it would be if each windmill opti- mized only its own output. That makes it pos- sible to manage the amount of power being fed into the power grid at which times.”
This concept resulted from Greiner’s work on self-organizing communication networks (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2004, p. 72). Greiner, a physicist, based his research on his extensive university experience with the ran- dom modeling of turbulent flows. “The re- search and development work, implementa- tion and trials would take about three years,” s a y s G r e i n e r . “ T h e c o n c e p t c o u l d t h u s b e i m - ■ S y l v i a T r a g e plemented in 2008.”
Tower of Superlatives
Taipei 101 has 101 floors and towers more than 500 meters above the capital of Taiwan. It’s the world’s tallest building — and, like many other skyscrapers, it’s fully equipped with networked facilities from Siemens.
O n New Year’s Eve 2004, a tower of su- perlatives was officially opened in Taipei. Since then, Taipei 101 has become a focal point in the city’s life. The offices alone accommodate up to 12,000 workers. Taipei 101 is also home to more than 160 stores, several restaurants and a fitness center. It has four lighted, ventilated and heated parking levels and 61 elevators. Energy management systems help to save energy and minimize op- erating costs. The building and its occupants also have to be kept safe in the event of an ac- cident or fire, while access to everything must be controlled.
“Automatic energy control and security systems are crucial to world-class buildings. In fact, they’re like a central nervous system,” says Kurt Y.S. Yeh, who is responsible for all electrical and mechanical systems at the Taipei Financial Center Corporation (TFCC). The various “synapses” of this nervous system come together in the building’s control room, which provides a complete overview of the images relayed by surveillance cameras, the status of heating, ventilation, and climate control systems, and the air pressure in the stairwells. The latter must be higher than elsewhere to prevent smoke from entering in the event of a fire.
fire breaks out, the fire doors automatically close to ensure smoke-free escape routes. In case of a power outage, the system switches on emergency generators.
SiPass is responsible for security. Some 500 cameras monitor all areas of the building open to the public and the service areas. SiPass knows who is allowed access to which floors and offices, and its more than 300 card reader units at doors and elevators control the movements of office workers who must identify themselves. Anyone who has a busi- ness appointment must first register at the Visitor Access Kiosk. If the visitor is expected, the kiosk automatically generates an ID card with the corresponding access authorization.
The two systems — EMCS and SiPass — in- teract. If someone registers at an access ter- minal on one of the parking levels, SiPass in- forms the EMCS, which automatically turns on the lights on that level. Simultaneously, the images from a nearby surveillance cam- era appear on a monitor in the control room.
Hansjörg Wigger from Siemens Building Technologies (SBT) is convinced that building
Siemens supplied two key building au- tomation systems in Taipei 101: the Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) and the SiPass access control system. The EMCS ensures for example that temperature and air quality remain comfortable throughout the building. It also centrally controls Tapei 101’s lighting system, which includes more than 35,000 fluorescent tubes, energy-saving lamps and halogen lights from Siemens sub- sidiary Osram. To ensure smooth operation, the tower is equipped with more than 47,000 control units whose data is continuously ana- lyzed by the EMCS. The EMCS also monitors all the fire protection and rescue systems. If a
Automation systems from Siemens ensure safety and comfort in the world’s tallest building.
automation, safety, security and technical building management will be integrated even further. The goal is to reduce costs and in- crease efficiency for the owners. However, universal solutions are not viable here, as each building has its own particular require- ments. That’s why SBT developed its flexible Total Building Solutions concept (TBS), which consists of a series of components and sys- tems that can be tailored to the specific needs of an individual building project. “For exam- ple, by using standardized protocols and in- terfaces, we enable fire protection and rescue systems to communicate with one another and keep escape routes open,” says Wigger.
The systems must also be flexible. For ex- ample, although the EMCS switches off the air-conditioning systems when offices close, employees working overtime can reactivate them manually. Even more important is the security system’s adaptability, since most of the offices and shops are rented out tem- porarily to occupants whose needs vary. Ob- viously, a jewelry store requires more security than a boutique. But what happens when they swap locations? SiPass therefore has a modular structure. “Every floor has connec- tions with the security system that allow the easy adjustment of individual components to fit the needs of each tenant,” says K. T. Yeh, project manager at SBT in Taipei. “Tenants can easily integrate other SiPass functions, such as biometric readers or software for retrieving time and attendance reports.”
This type of adaptability is extremely valu- able for building owners, who plan long term. The tower’s first tenants have already moved in, and the Taipei Financial Center Corpora- tion has every reason to be satisfied with the building and its various systems. “The Siemens team proved to be highly efficient in completing the systems on time for the grand o p e n i n g . T h a t ’ s a r e m a r k a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t , ” ■ W e r n e r P l u t a says TFCC manager Yeh.
Pictures of the Future | Fall 2005