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Chapter 2. Programs and Structures that Support Student Success

preparing for and attending class necessary prerequisites for course success. It should be stressed that out-­of-­class work needs to be preparation for the upcoming class, not simply review of the material from a completed class session.

Techniques in Improving Class Preparation and Attendance

Very clear expectations of what students are expected to do in preparation, what options are available to prepare (such as reading, viewing a video, or reviewing voiced-­over presentation slides), how their preparation will be assessed, and the rewards for preparing and consequences of not preparing. Students must prepare to attend class because student homework is used in class activity.

3UHSDUDWLRQ IRU FODVV VKRXOG EH ZRUWK D VLJQL¿FDQW SHUFHQWDJH RI WKH FRXUVH JUDGH DW OHDVW  SHUFHQW These points can be awarded or claimed in class only, generally only at the beginning of each class. This preparation is necessary to participate in class activity, which is also worth at least 15 percent of the grade.

Assessments of completion of out-­of-­class work must be timely at or before the beginning of class. Before class, questions are to be answered on course management software, comments made on a blog (http:// www.blogscholar.com) or wiki (http://www.wiki.com/), and answers or other material e-­mailed to the instructor.

At the beginning of class, a live quiz is given and is scored in real time with clickers or an audience re-­ sponse system (http://www.turningtechnologies.com/studentresponsesystems/) (Bruff 2009;; Caldwell 2007;; Duncan 2005). A paper and pencil quiz can be scored immediately in a class of manageable size. A quick visual check of homework completion should be done.

Increase Classroom Learning Activity and Engagement

If there is a truism in higher education, it is that student activity increases learning (Pascarella and Teren-­ zini 1991, 2005). The primary reason class content is moved out of class is to free class time for active learning. Peer instruction, which is activity, can help move students to content, skills, and affective learn-­ ing outcomes (Manzur 1997). Activity necessarily improves engagement, since the active student is an engaged student.

Techniques to Increase Learning Activity in the Classroom

To help students understand content, they should actively teach it to another person, as with peer in-­ VWUXFWLRQ 7KH ³WKLQN SDLU VTXDUH VKDUH´ PRGHO FDQ KHOS VWXGHQWV PRYH IURP UHÀHFWLRQ WR VKDULQJ http:// teachingtricks.weebly.com/think-­pair-­square-­share.html).

To help students learn a skill, they need to actively practice it with someone observing for accuracy. The student demonstrates the skill to another student, who evaluates the demonstration for accuracy with a rubric. In Jigsaw and Expert groups (http://www.jigsaw.org), students teach skills to other students.

To help students come to care, value, or see worth in a subject or skill, they need to actively identify how WKLV FRQWHQW RU VNLOO ZLOO EHQH¿W WKHP LQ WKH IXWXUH DQG DFWLYHO\ DUWLFXODWH WKLV EHQH¿W WR DQRWKHU SHUVRQ 7KH PHQX RI EHQH¿WV LQ WKH ³,GHQWLI\ &ODVV *RDOV´ VHFWLRQ DERYH LV GHVLJQHG WR KHOS VWXGHQWV FRQQHFW FODVV goals to their future and increase the likelihood that they will value the class, class goals, and class activi-­ ties. Provide ongoing opportunities to identify how people in roles they aspire to use the course content and skills. Use structured activities designed to offer students the opportunity to convince another student that course content and skills are valuable.

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A Collection of Papers on Self-­Study and Institutional Improvement, 2011 © 2011 Higher Learning Commission. All rights reserved.

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