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6) Excretory system

An increase in blood volume lead to increase in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate is increased during pregnancy. As a result urine formation is increased. In later pregnancy the size of the uterus is increased which is presses on the urinary bladder to increase the need for micturition.

  7)  Nervous system

General excitement of nervous system and sometime lead to physiological imblance such as change in moods, excitement or depression in early stage of pregnancy and phobia may develop in later stage due to delivery and labor pains.

  8) Metabolic changes

Metabolic activities are increased due to the secretion of various hormones such as T4, cortisol. These hormones increased the BMR by 15% in later stage of pregnancy.

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