Not helpless victims - structuration theory
The British sociologist Anthony Giddens discusses structuration theory, in which
“Structure is the medium and outcome of the conduct it recursively organizes”, and
“Actors are knowledgeable and competent agents who reflexively monitor their action”.
In other words, speakers of languages that are subject to linguistic imperialism are not helpless victims, but are in a more complex relationship with the forces propelling a dominant language forward, at the cost of a dominated language (Phillipson, in press).