Determining Importance: Proficient readers seek the importance of what they read and to find the
essence in information. They use their conclusions about important ideas and/or themes to focus their reading and to exclude peripheral or unimportant details.
DRTA: (Directed Reading-Thinking Activity) This activity helps determine the purpose for reading,
develops prediction and inference skills, and helps students to use information from the text to support their predictions/inferences. Students brainstorm predictions from the title using the title, cover picture, and their schema. Next student (or teacher) reads the first section. Predictions are confirmed, rejected, or modified. Only the student that made a specific prediction can change his/her answers. More predictions are made and the second section is read. Again students confirm, reject, or modify their predictions based on the new information read. As predictions are confirmed, rejected, or modified, the teacher encourages students to justify their decisions using the new information and prior knowledge. This is helpful in developing critical reading skills and deepens comprehension.
Guided Reading: Guided reading is reading instruction that uses developmentally appropriate texts.
Each lesson should focus on direct instruction of a particular reading strategy such as the three cueing systems or reading comprehension.
Independent Reading: Students read books or texts of their choice during free or independent time.
Inferencing: The reader uses prior knowledge and textual information from the text (evidence) to draw
conclusions, make predictions, make critical judgments, and form unique interpretations of the text When the author doesn’t answer the questions a reader may have, the reader must infer. (Examples: Maybe…, I think…, It could be…, It’s because…, I’m guessing…, etc.)
Literary Devices: (Figurative Language)
Alliteration - repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words of a sentence or line of poetry
Cliché - A phrase or sentence that has been overused. It is often better to find a new way of saying the same thing.
Hyperbole – a deliberate and obvious exaggeration used for effect
Idiom -a common phrase made up of words that can’t be understood by their literal, or ordinary meaning
Imagery – language that appeals to the five senses – sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch
Metaphor – a direct comparison between two things. It states one thing is another. It does not use the words like or as
Onomatopoeia – the use of words that sound like the noises described
Overstatement - An exaggeration or a stretching of the truth
Personification – A figure of speech in which an animal, object, or idea is given human qualities, such as the ability to cry, feel, talk, and make decisions
Simile – a comparison between two things, using the words like or as
Symbolism – when something is used to stand for something more than just itself