Making Words: An activity in which students are individually given some letters to make words. It is an
active, hands-on, manipulative activity in which children discover letter-sound relationships and learn how to look for patterns in words. They also learn that changing just one letter or even just the sequence of letters changes the whole word.
Monitoring Comprehension: Proficient readers monitor their learning flexibly, adapt learning strategies
to new situations. They utilize a variety of fix-up strategies to repair comprehension when it breaks down. They select appropriate fix-up strategies from one of the six language systems to best solve a given problem in a given reading situation.
Graphophonic: Letter/sound knowledge (phonics)
Lexical: Visual word knowledge (sight words)
Semantic: Word meanings/ associations - Does it make sense?
Syntactic: Language structure at the word, sentence, and text level (verb in place of a verb, noun in place of a noun). Does it sound right?
Schematic: Use of prior knowledge that stores and accesses information needed
Pragmatic: Social construction of meaning, knowledge of purpose, use of other readers as resources (your knowledge + my knowledge makes a greater meaning than before)
Paraphrase: A writer’s own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. It is a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.
Phonemic Awareness: The understanding that word is made up of a series of discrete sounds. Phonemic Awareness Activities are exercises that help children hear how sounds are put together (oral blending) and how to separate words into sounds (oral segmentation).
Poems/Poetry Forms: See the Writing Strategies Glossary
Prediction: Inferring subsequent events and outcomes
Question Stems: See Reading Across the Curriculum sheet in this guide
Initial Understanding – “Reading the Lines” of text. It is the literal comprehension of what is specifically written in the text. Reader looks for specific details, action, reason, and/or sequence
Interpretation – “Reading Between the Lines of Text”. Information may not be given but it is implied. Readers form an interpretation based on implicit and explicit information. Students may infer the main idea or meaning and use that information to predict what happens next (extended meaning)
Critical Analysis – “Reading Beyond the Lines” of text by synthesizing and evaluating explicit and implicit information