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    • Creating imagery: “I picture a huge oak tree when I think of the nervous system.”

    • Clarifying: “Wow, I don’t know that word at all, but it’s in bold type, so I bet its meaning is listed in the glossary or the end of the chapter.”

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    Thinking Maps: Thinking Maps are eight visual-verbal tools, each based on a fundamental thinking

process and used together as a set of tools for showing relationships.

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    Vocabulary Development:

    • Affix – Letters are letters added to the beginning or ending of a word to change its meaning or grammatical function.

    • Antonym – Words with opposite meaning. Cold and hot are antonyms.

    • Etymology – The in-depth study of the history of words.

    • Homograph – Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings and different origins. Bat = club, flying animal, or a wink

    • Homophone – Words that sound the same but have different meanings and usually different spellings. (road, rode, rowed)

    • Synonym – Words that mean nearly the same thing. Big and large are synonyms.

    • Multiple Meaning Word: A word that has more than one meaning. Story is a multiple meaning word. It can mean a real or imaginary tale or a level of a building.

    • Prefix – An affix added to the beginning of a word to form a new word. In is a prefix in inaccurate.

    • Suffix – An affix added to the end of a word to change its grammatical form or its meaning. Ness is a suffix in goodness.

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      Visualizing: Proficient readers create mental images to understand information. These images are visual,

auditory, or other sensory connections to the text. Proficient readers use these images to deepen understanding of text.

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    Word Play: Games and activities used to develop vocabulary and word knowledge. These can be used in

independent center activities or used as lessons and activities to develop vocabulary. (Examples:

  • Alliteration – several words or a sentence that begin with the same letter or sound

  • Hink pink - One syllable rhyming words that answer a question( What is a chubby feline? – a fat cat)

  • Hinky Pinky - Two syllable words that answer a question (What would you call a tiny bird from New Zealand? – A peewee kiwi) A hinkety pinkety would be a three syllable rhyming words that answer a question (What would you call a yellow fruit’s bright, large handkerchief? A banana bandana)

  • Hyperbole – a figure of speech that is an extreme exaggeration of the truth

  • Idioms – A saying whose meaning is different from the usual meanings of the individual words. To talk a blue streak is an idiom that means to talk a lot and often quickly.

  • Memory Games – Example: Concentration

  • Onomatopoeia – words that imitate or suggest the sounds they describe (meow, crash crack, slurp, twirl, screech)

  • Personification – a figure of speech that gives a human quality to something nonhuman

  • Portmanteaus – breakfast + lunch = brunch, and various other vocabulary games)

  • Proverbs – A saying that offers advice or offers an observation about life. Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder is a proverb.

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