Creating imagery: “I picture a huge oak tree when I think of the nervous system.”
Clarifying: “Wow, I don’t know that word at all, but it’s in bold type, so I bet its meaning is listed in the glossary or the end of the chapter.”
Thinking Maps: Thinking Maps are eight visual-verbal tools, each based on a fundamental thinking
process and used together as a set of tools for showing relationships.
Affix – Letters are letters added to the beginning or ending of a word to change its meaning or grammatical function.
Antonym – Words with opposite meaning. Cold and hot are antonyms.
Etymology – The in-depth study of the history of words.
Homograph – Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings and different origins. Bat = club, flying animal, or a wink
Homophone – Words that sound the same but have different meanings and usually different spellings. (road, rode, rowed)
Synonym – Words that mean nearly the same thing. Big and large are synonyms.
Multiple Meaning Word: A word that has more than one meaning. Story is a multiple meaning word. It can mean a real or imaginary tale or a level of a building.
Prefix – An affix added to the beginning of a word to form a new word. In is a prefix in inaccurate.
Suffix – An affix added to the end of a word to change its grammatical form or its meaning. Ness is a suffix in goodness.
Visualizing: Proficient readers create mental images to understand information. These images are visual,
auditory, or other sensory connections to the text. Proficient readers use these images to deepen understanding of text.
Word Play: Games and activities used to develop vocabulary and word knowledge. These can be used in
independent center activities or used as lessons and activities to develop vocabulary. (Examples:
Alliteration – several words or a sentence that begin with the same letter or sound
Hink pink - One syllable rhyming words that answer a question( What is a chubby feline? – a fat cat)
Hinky Pinky - Two syllable words that answer a question (What would you call a tiny bird from New Zealand? – A peewee kiwi) A hinkety pinkety would be a three syllable rhyming words that answer a question (What would you call a yellow fruit’s bright, large handkerchief? A banana bandana)
Hyperbole – a figure of speech that is an extreme exaggeration of the truth
Idioms – A saying whose meaning is different from the usual meanings of the individual words. To talk a blue streak is an idiom that means to talk a lot and often quickly.
Memory Games – Example: Concentration
Onomatopoeia – words that imitate or suggest the sounds they describe (meow, crash crack, slurp, twirl, screech)
Personification – a figure of speech that gives a human quality to something nonhuman
Portmanteaus – breakfast + lunch = brunch, and various other vocabulary games)
Proverbs – A saying that offers advice or offers an observation about life. Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder is a proverb.