WSJ.com - The Perfect Payday
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Journal's analysis of the likelihood of Mr. Rich's grants all falling on such favorable dates. But Ms. Pool added that the timing wasn't purely happenstance: "We did grant options when there was a natural dip in the stock price," she said. On March 6, ACS said that the SEC is examining its option grants.
Stock options give recipients a right to buy company stock at a set price, called the exercise price or strike price. The right usually doesn't vest for a year or more, but then it continues for several years. The exercise price is usually the stock's 4 p.m. price on the date of the grant, an average of the day's high and low, or the 4 p.m. price the day before. Naturally, the lower it is, the more money the recipient can potentially make someday by exercising the options.
Which day's price the options carry makes a big difference. Suppose an executive gets 100,000 options on a day when the stock is at $30. Exercising them after it has reached $50 would bring a profit of $20 times 100,000, or $2 million. But if the grant date was a month earlier and the stock then was at, say, $20, the options would bring in an extra $1 million.
A key purpose of stock options is to give recipients an incentive to improve their employer's performance, including its stock price. No stock gain, no profit on the options. Backdating them so they carry a lower price would run counter to this goal, by giving the recipient a paper gain right from the start.
Companies have a right to give executives lavish compensation if they choose to, but they can't mislead shareholders about it. Granting an option at a price below the current market value, while not illegal in itself, could result in false disclosure. That's because companies grant their options under a shareholder-approved "option plan" on file with the SEC. The plans typically say options will carry the stock price of the day the company awards them or the day before. If it turns out they carry some other price, the company could be in violation of its options plan, and potentially vulnerable to an allegation of securities fraud.
It could even face accounting issues. Options priced below the stock's fair market value when they're awarded bring the recipient an instant paper gain. Under accounting rules, that's equivalent to extra pay and thus is a cost to the company. A company that failed to include such a cost in its books may have overstated its profits, and might need to restate past financial results.
The Journal's analysis raises questions about one of the most lucrative stock-option grants ever. On Oct. 13, 1999, William W. McGuire, CEO of giant insurer UnitedHealth Group Inc., got an enormous grant in three parts that -- after adjustment for later stock splits -- came to 14.6 million options. So far, he has exercised about 5% of them, for a profit of about $39 million. As of late February he had 13.87 million unexercised options left from the October 1999 tranche. His profit on those, if he exercised them today, would be about $717 million more.
The 1999 grant was dated the very day UnitedHealth stock hit its low for the year. Grants to Dr. McGuire in 1997 and 2000 were also dated on the day with those years' single lowest closing price. A grant in 2001 came near the bottom of a sharp stock dip. In all, the odds of such a favorable pattern occurring by chance would be one in 200 million or greater. Odds such as those are "astronomical," said David Yermack, an associate professor of finance at New York University, who reviewed the Journal's methodology and has studied options-timing issues.
Options grants are made by directors, with details often handled by a compensation committee. Many companies make their grants at the same time each year, a policy that limits the potential for date fudging. But no law requires this.
Until last year, UnitedHealth had a very unusual policy: It let Dr. McGuire choose the day of his own option
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