WSJ.com - The Perfect Payday
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grants. According to his 1999 employment agreement, he is supposed to choose dates by giving "oral notification" to the chairman of the company's compensation committee. The agreement says the exercise price shall be the stock's closing price on the date the grants are issued.
Arthur Meyers, an executive-compensation attorney with Seyfarth Shaw LLP in Boston, said a contract such as that sounded "like a thinly disguised attempt to pick the lowest grant price possible." Mr. Meyers said such a pact could pose several legal issues, possibly violating Internal Revenue Service and stock-exchange listing rules that require directors to set a CEO's compensation. "If he picks the date of his grant, he has arguably set a portion of his pay. It's just not good corporate governance."
UnitedHealth called the process by which its grants were awarded "appropriate." It declined to answer specific questions about grant dates but noted that on all but two of them, grants were made to a broad group of employees.
William Spears, a member of UnitedHealth's compensation committee, said the October 1999 grant wasn't backdated but was awarded concurrently with the signing of Dr. McGuire's employment contract. Mr. Spears said a depressed stock price spurred directors to wrap up negotiations and get options to management. The board revised terms of the employment contract last year and will start making stock-option grants at a regular time each year, Mr. Spears added.
The SEC's look at options timing was largely prompted by academic research that examined thousands of companies and found odd patterns of stock movement around the dates of grants. One study was by Erik Lie of the University of Iowa. He found that share prices generally fell before option grants and rose afterward, with the result that recipients got options at favorable times. He concluded this was so unlikely to happen by chance that at least some grant dates had to have been filled in retroactively.
Another possible explanation for big rises in stock prices following grants is that executives knew favorable company news was coming and timed the grants just before it. But academics think timing for company news is a less likely explanation for the patterns, given the consistency of the stock climbs after grant dates. Also, for many of the companies the Journal examined, no obvious company news followed closely upon the option grants.
It's also possible companies sometimes award options after their stock has taken a fall and seems to them to be undervalued. In point of fact, the companies can't possibly know what the stock will do next, but that doesn't mean they might not feel confident enough about a recovery to think they are hitting a favorable time to grant options.
The use of stock options surged in the late 1990s as young firms that had bright prospects but little revenue used them to attract and pay executives. As dot-com and telecom shares exploded, stock options became a source of vast wealth.
They also grew controversial. Critics worried that big options grants tempted executives to do whatever it took to get the stock price up, at least long enough to cash in their options. At the same time, during a general bull market, the options sometimes richly rewarded executives for stock buoyancy that had little to do with their own efforts.
At Mercury Interactive Corp., a Mountain View, Calif., software maker, the chief executive and two others resigned late last year. Mercury said an internal probe found 49 cases where the reported date of options grants differed from the date when the options appeared to have been awarded. The company said it will have to restate financial results. The SEC is still looking at Mercury, said someone familiar with the situation.
Analog Devices Inc. says it reached a tentative settlement with the SEC last fall. It neither admitted nor
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3/19/2006 5:42 PM