Figure 2: The number of refereed publications per telescope per year for various observatories from Dennis Crabtree (Gemini Observatory).
Many of the WMKO publications that form the basis for Figures 1-3 were written by lead authors not associated with U.C., Caltech, or U.H.; a significant percentage have no authors from these institutions.
Notable scientific results achieved using Keck Observatory and arising from NASA time allocations include: the discovery of dozens of extrasolar planets, including ones with masses less than that of Neptune; new information about the Uranus atmosphere and ring system from observations during the rare alignment of our line of sight and its ring plane; high-resolution spectra of comets revealing that comets contain a multitude of volatile organic compounds; and the Keck Interferometer spatially resolving gaseous and continuum emission in the protoplanetary accretion disks around 15 young stars. These NASA achievements are more fully described in the state-of-the-profession paper “The Value of the Keck Observatory to NASA and Its Scientific Community.” Notable TSIP scientific results with Keck include: the study of optically thick absorbers near luminous quasars; the luminosity function of Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at high redshift; and the orbits and masses of extrasolar planets, particularly planets revealed by extensive transit observations.