22 Emilyzen Ignacio and esenia Mejia
Whether these protection measures are utilized or effective, however, must be measured separately.
The cross-border movement of transnational workers involves at least two states — the
country of origin and migration infrastructure
destination the sending
country. Combining and receiving countries
the possible types of examined in this study
results in the matrix included fees on migrants, employers dedicated to migrant welfare,
below. The Philippines, with its government imposed and recruitment agencies, and numerous institutions is classified as a high migration infrastructure state. In
contrast, Indonesia is considered a low migration infrastructure more recent and less developed migration policy program. Hong
state because Kong collects
of its many
fees from stakeholders (i.e. employers are required to insurance, and the Employee’s Retraining levy27) mechanisms to address migrant rights while in-country.
cover cost of air ticket, health as well as provides various
It is important to note that the simplified framework is only valuable when comparing two sending countries in the same destination country and market. In particular, this study focuses on Hong Kong and the foreign domestic helper market. This policy analysis utilizes the framework below to classify states according to the type of migration infrastructure in order to begin answering whether higher migration infrastructures improve the welfare of overseas workers.
Basic PAE Framework Type of State
Type of Migration Infrastructure
Country of Origin
27 In October 2003, under the Employees Retraining Ordinance, the Hong Kong government imposed a monthly Employee’s Retraining levy of HK$ 400 for hiring foreign domestic helpers when the economy was in a recession.
28 For explanation on migration infrastructures of each state, refer to “Background” section, Annex I and II of PAE.