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30 Emilyzen Ignacio and esenia Mejia

In sum, both populations surveyed experienced overcharging by recruitment agencies during their stay in Hong Kong. Indonesians were observed to be persistently and more overcharged.

Job insecurity: The prevalence of early terminations –reflective of the high job insecurity associated with domestic work– was acknowledged as a top FDH concern by government officials and NGO service providers interviewed. Within the specified Subgroup surveyed, 56 percent (n=55) of the contracts were terminated prematurely (44 percent (n=25) of the Filipinos and 67 percent (n=30) of the Indonesians were dismissed prematurely). These rates, however, cannot be used to form generalizations about the prevalence of early terminations across the entire FDH market in Hong Kong given sampling biases described above.

FDHs provided several reasons for early termination, including leaving a physically and/or verbally abusive employment situation, disputes with employers over salary deductions, withholding of FDH personal documents (particularly employer possession of FDH passport), and repeated criticism over FDHs’ quality of work.

Limited analysis has been done to understand the magnitude and factors contributing to job insecurity. One possible factor described in interviews with service providers and FDHs is the “Buy One, Try Three Policy” instituted by employment agencies. This policy grants potential employers to pay service fees one time, but try up to three FDHs

within

a

“promotional”

period.

This

clientele at the expense of the FDH who

scheme benefits private agencies and despite termination must pay placements

their fees.

Despite numerous attempts, no Hong Kong-based employment agreed to participate in this study regardless of anonymity status. the private sector impact and state regulation should be pursued.

agencies solicited Further analysis of

6.6 Contract violations

Contract violations in this analysis refer to any infringements on the Hong Kong standard employment contract, which should be signed by both the employer and employed FDH. The contract sets minimum labor standards of payment, rest days and other benefits guaranteed to the FDH while also protecting their human rights. Both surveyed FDH populations experience contract violations, but the violations were observed to be greatest among Indonesian FDHs surveyed.

Underpayment: To determine if an FDH was underpaid, the amount that was deducted from their salary for placement fees was added to the amount they received in wages after the salary deduction. If the total amount was less than the applicable Hong Kong MAW, then the FDH is considered to be underpaid. For example:

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