38 Emilyzen Ignacio and esenia Mejia
Conduct a strategic review on the role of private recruitment agencies on the FDH market. Regulation of the private sector on the FDH market has been loosely upheld by the Philippine, Indonesian and Hong Kong governments. This is in part because the placement of FDHs has become increasingly reliant on the private sector (an important source of employment for labor excess states like the Philippines and Indonesia). Focus should be shifted towards understanding the impact these agencies have had, and continue to have, on migrant worker rights and welfare. In particular, greater attention should be placed on FDH claims of overcharging and states should be impelled to prosecute abusive agencies29.
Push for regional agreements to tackle enforcement gaps. While cooperation
and partnerships formal bilateral receiving states
exists among the sending states studied and Hong Kong, no or regional accords have been signed. Thus, sending and continue to operate in loose silos raising new migration
efforts, or are counterproductive in managing migration. By creating conceptions of employment and migration standards, states can cooperatively and transnationally to improve migrant worker protection.
7.2 Further hypothesis testing
The report attempted to test the hypothesis that higher migration infrastructures in the sending and receiving states lead to greater protection of migrants’ welfare. Understanding this relationship, along with the how (i.e. the efficacy of the migration
infrastructures) can add to the body of literature shedding
light on continue
complex test this
hypothesis can stimulate transnational discussions and subsequently, transnational policies. Based on field work and consultations with the initial research provided in this report should be expanded following:
the formulation of migration experts, in line with the
¾ Continue collecting data on the following variables:
High/low migration infrastructure state (independent variable);
Contract violations of migrants (dependent variable); and,
Age, highest education level, socioeconomic status, language skills and other variables that may affect contract violations, but should be controlled to isolate the effect of migration infrastructures.
29 In Hong Kong agencies cannot charge more than ten percent of an FDH’s first month’s salary. However, proving agency overcharging is difficult as it becomes the word of the FDH against the accredited firm. Moreover, fines and penalties are insignificant compared to the potential earnings these agencies make off the FDHs.