46 Emilyzen Ignacio and esenia Mejia
PHILIPPINE MIGRATION INFRASTRUCTURE
GOVERNMENT POLICY The labor migration of Filipino nationals is heavily regulated by the Philippine
government through three major elements.
The first element is the
and employment industry. The Administration (OWWA), the
second element lead agency that
is the Overseas seeks to promote
Workers Welfare the well-being and
there are labor
sanctioned at embassies, consulates, and satellite Philippine (POLOs) abroad to provide assistance to migrants in host
Additional government agencies may directly or indirectly contribute to the migration process for Filipinos. For instance, the Department of Health accredits the medical clinics where OFWs obtain medical certifications and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) also accredit assessment centers and provide migrants with necessary skills certificates. 32
PRE-DEPARTURE Prior to January 15, 2008, Filipinos could legally obtain overseas employment in one of two ways—direct hire (also called name hire) or through a licensed private recruitment agency. The POEA Memorandum Circular No. 4 (MC NO. 4), Series of 2007, however, limits the use of direct hiring for a class of exempt foreign employers and those that obtain the prior approval of the Philippine Secretary of Labor.33 Because the Filipino migrants surveyed for this PAE attained their employment prior to MC NO. 4, it is noteworthy to further elaborate upon the direct hire and recruitment agency processes for OFWs.
30 Overseas Workers Welfare Administration. “About Us.” http://www.owwa.gov.ph/page/about_us/. 2007. Accessed February 2008.
31 Manolo Abella, et al. “Conference Note: Best Practices to Manage Migration: The Philippines.” International Migration Review. Vol. 38 (4). Winter 2004. pg. 1545.
32 Philippine Overseas Employment Agency. “Registration of Name Hire (Household Workers).” http://poea.gov.ph/ofw/namehire_dh.html. August 22, 2007. Accessed February 2008.
33 Philippine Overseas Employment Agency. “Questions and Answers on POEA Memorandum Circular No. 04. Series of 2007 On Guidelines on Direct Hiring of Overseas Filipino Workers” http://www.poea.gov.ph/mc/Q&A%20DirectHiring.pdf. Accessed February 2008.