50 Emilyzen Ignacio and esenia Mejia
INDONESIAN MIGRATION INFRASTRUCTURES
“The main point is that all the problems of Indonesian Workers, since the process of recruitment until returning home, all the directions of the government policies are purposed to make the placement service and protection to Indonesian Workers better in the future.” ~ Minister of Manpower and Transmigration,
GOVERNMENT POLICY Most policies have been directed at unskilled labor emigration – outflows of high- skilled labor have been marginal in Indonesian contrary to patterns displayed by other developing countries. Indonesian government has been slower than the Philippines and other migrant-sending countries to develop effective policies and programs to protect their overseas workers – a point of high criticism by migrant workers, their advocates, and international observers and experts39.
In recent years, however, such attitudes are changing with government exercising greater action over this loosely regulated sector. In fact, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has named migrants "foreign exchange heroes," and publicly recognized that the recruitment process winds up overcharging migrants and encouraging illegal migration40. For example, in 2006, the government of Indonesia established a directorate to improve the welfare of migrant workers - the National Board for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Overseas Workers (BNP2TKI). On other occasions, the Indonesian government has suspended the deployment of overseas workers to certain countries calling for the increase of their nationals’ protection abroad.
Below is a brief overview of the Indonesian migration infrastructure – both programs and policies directed at the preparation and deployment of FDHs as well as measures in place in Hong Kong.
39 _______. (2006). ILO Project on Mobilising Action for the Protection of Domestic Workers from Forced Labour and Trafficking in Southeast Asia; p.
Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Republic of Indonesia.