Managing labour migration: The case of the Filipino and Indonesian domestic helper market in Hong Kong 51
PRE-DEPARTURE The Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration was traditionally the government agency charged with regulating matters concerning FDH. At present the Ministry coordinates the daily efforts of, the newly established BNP2TKI which is now responsible for the welfare of all Indonesian citizens’ welfare while working overseas.
FDH recruitment In Indonesia, the recruitment and placement of overseas domestic workers is undertaken by private agencies called Perusahaan Jasa Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (PJTKI). At present, the role of the government in the pre-departure stage has been limited mostly to monitoring these agencies through a licensing scheme known as Surat Izin Pelaksana Penempatan (SIPPTKI).
Currently, the BNP2TKI is working with various line-ministries to integrate technology in the form of an online international job board to expedite the process of overseas job placing while also granting greater control over employment decisions to the migrant worker. These include: the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transportation, the State Ministry for State-Owned Enterprises, and the Ministry of Health that will be coordinated by the Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs.
Training centers It is mandatory under the Migrant Worker Placement and Protection Law for all such workers to undertake job and language training. The training is usually carried out by recruitment and placement agencies or affiliated companies. Trainees are generally not permitted to leave the premises, are exposed to a number of health hazards, and may be held at camps after training ends until a placement can be found.
Fees Government intervention on the recruitment and deployment process of FDHs in Indonesia has been limited to few decrees and is not vastly regulated as observed in the case of the Philippines. Thus, the cost of migration to transnational workers has been subject to much debate. The Migrant Placement and Protection Law of Indonesia states that recruitment fees placed by private agencies should only reflect costs associated with processing identity documents and psychological tests, job training and
competency certification41. Essentially, this law follows ILO standards the fee from which the private agency gains should not come from the and must be borne by another party (i.e. the overseas employer). ambiguous are the standard rates FDHs are ultimately required to pay.
which state that migrant worker What remain