Innovation typology in tourism
innovations, which comprise the reorganization of external commercial linkages, has some elements in common with the categories of development of new sales markets and of new supply markets of Schumpeter. Finally, a fifth typology of institutional innovations takes the collaborative and regulatory structures in communities into account. Thus, Hjalager incorporates a new element to the classification: the linkages in communities, which go beyond the main economic activities of firms.
Different areas of the organization can be identified from the combination of the former mentioned approaches: product generation, process production, management of the organization, market development and linkages with other public and private organizations.
In this matter, Gallouj (2002) identifies three typologies of innovation based on the study of consultancy services. The first category of ad hoc innovations regards innovations taking place in the interaction between provider and customer. These types of innovations are unprogrammed and emergent. Consequently, their exactly reproduction is difficult. Ad hoc innovations, however, describe a characteristic of services innovation, namely that innovation processes take place in the interaction between provider and costumer. As a result, this category cannot be included in a classification based on the area of the organization. Next, Gallouj introduces the typology of anticipatory innovation. Drejer agrees with this typology, since from a Schumpeterian perspective it consists on the identification of new needs, which can lead to the development of new markets. This type of innovation thus refers to organizational capabilities. The third category of formalization of innovation is related to the transformation of tacit knowledge into explicit. Certainly, organizations that formalize knowledge tend to be more innovative, though, as Drejer states, formalization of knowledge enhances innovation, but it is not an innovation type in itself. Consequently, in identifying innovation types, Gallouj’s approach does not only regard the area of the organization, but also other criteria. Nevertheless, it is a relevant classification because it emphasizes several characteristics of services, such as the interaction between costumer and provider, or the necessity to acquire tacit knowledge and to transform it into explicit.
Despite the existence of a great variety of typologies, most of the studies have basically focused in product and process innovations. These two types refer to the generation of improved or new goods and services and the ways to produce these goods and services (Fagerberg 2005). This distinction simplifies the classification made by Schumpeter and emphasizes the two areas of the organization that have a more direct economic effect. For instance, the OECD (2005) distinguished between product and process innovations in the first and second edition of the Oslo Manual, which aims to provide several guidelines for the measurement of scientific and technological activities. The third round of the European Community Innovation Survey used this typology as well (Drejer 2004). However, the third edition of the Oslo Manual (OECD 2005), which covers the manufacturing sector as well as the service sector, incorporates two new types of innovations: organizational and marketing innovations. This new classification introduced in the Oslo Manual has many similarities with Schumpeter’s classification. Furthermore, it can be applied to services as well as manufacturing activities. Besides, the manual emphasizes the linkages with other organizations and institutions as a determinant for innovation. Yet, the improvement of external linkages is not regarded as an innovation type in the manual.