Type of activity
The type of activity determines the rate of technological change in organizations and the modes of production and acquisition of knowledge. Large organizations tend to be more innovative. However, entrepreneurs and SME’s that collaborate in networks may have high levels of innovativeness as well.
Diversification of innovation
Diversified organizations tend to acquire knowledge from several sources and produce different types of innovations.
Organization’s structure and innovation strategy
Dynamic and flexible structures that also include several managerial elements such as formalization of innovation are the most appropriate to improve innovation activity in organizations.
Organizations that combine periods of cumulative change with periods of radical innovations tend to be the most innovative.
Collaboration with the environment
Collaboration with actors from inside and outside the tourism sector enhances innovation.
Sources of external knowledge
Organizations that acquire and adapt knowledge from different sources tend to be more innovative.
Knowledge and competences inside the organization
Investment in the production of knowledge in organizations enhances innovation performance within the organization as well as the development of linkages with the environment. Absorptive capacity influences the acquisition of new knowledge and the ability to reproduce ad hoc innovations, i.e. innovations produced in the interaction between producer and user.
Type of innovation
The types of innovations produced by organizations influence innovation processes.
Table 4.1: Determinants
of innovation in tourism at organizational level
Innovation typology in tourism
Determinants at the Macro Level
The determinants included here take into consideration the processes of innovation at the macro level. These determinants influence innovation performance at local, regional, national and global levels. In this classification, not only the tourism sector is taken into account. Also other external sectors that influence innovation performance in tourism are considered. The determinants at the macro level are summarized in table 4.2.
Heterogeneity of actors. In order to create the appropriate environment for innovation, heterogeneity of actors is required at the macro level. Thus, the existence of the actors identified in the former section might enhance innovation performance. These actors may be localized at destination level or may operate regionally, nationally or globally. Furthermore, the necessary actors to develop innovations in tourism can be found inside as well as outside the sector. For instance, KIBS from other sectors supply the tourism industry with new knowledge.