Innovation typology in tourism
Table 4.2: Determinants of innovation in tourism at the macro level
Heterogeneity of actors, i.e. private and public organizations, enhances innovation performance.
Linkages between actors
The development of linkages among actors from inside and outside the sector improves synergies and enhances the capacity to benefit from spillovers. A certain degree of institutionalization at local, regional, national and global levels improves innovation activity in the tourism sector.
In order to avoid lock-in situations, destinations should combine periods of cumulative change with periods of radical innovations.
Interaction with the demand
Continuous interaction with the demand enhances the adaptation to demand needs and the development of innovations.
Diversification improves the capacity to acquire knowledge as well as to develop innovations.
In conclusion, several determinants at organizational and macro level influence innovation performance in the tourism sector. Despite the fact that all determinants are relevant, interactions among public and private organizations from inside and outside the tourism sector and between suppliers and customers have been identified as the main drivers of innovation in tourism. Nevertheless, these processes are related to different aspects of knowledge and learning that are difficult to measure. In the following chapter an approach for the measurement of innovation in the tourism sector is suggested.