Innovation typology in tourism
study carried out by Pavitt does not only provide a theory of innovation and a taxonomy, but also confirms the adaptability of innovation surveys to each case studied.
To sum up, in this section several measurement approaches have been introduced. While input-ouput studies are based on the investments and results of innovation, innovation surveys are more suitable for measuring innovative activities or innovative performance. Nevertheless, the combination of both methods might be the most appropriate form of gathering data on innovative performance. However, some topics related to the measurement of innovation need further study. With the aim of providing a conceptual framework for the measurement of innovation in tourism, in the next section several of these topics are reviewed.
5.2. Measurement of Innovation in Tourism
The measurement approaches presented in the former section were developed in order to study specific cases. Each survey thus requires a determined measurement approach. Consequently, theoretical concepts such as what an innovation is and what should be measured may be determined by the approach that researchers develop (Unger 2005). The measurement approach developed in this section is based on the theory introduced in former chapters. The characteristics of the tourism sector, the determinants of innovation and the types of innovation are taken into consideration in the development of an conceptual framework for the measurement of innovation in tourism. In this context, several contributions must be regarded.
The work developed by Kline and Rosenberg has influenced the perception of what should be measured (Smith 2005). For instance, their approach contributed to several conceptual foundations of the Oslo Manual (Smith 2005). They emphasized three aspects of innovation. First, innovation is not a linear process. It involves several interactions and feedbacks in knowledge production. Next, innovation is related to learning processes that involve multiple inputs. Finally, innovation is not determined by invention activities, but by problem-solving processes within the ongoing innovation process rather than an initiating factor (Smith 2005). Therefore, it is of great relevance to differentiate between inventions and innovations, as it has been emphasized in the analysis of patents as an output indicator. Thus, innovations do not necessarily emerge from invention processes (Smith 2005). Innovation is related to processes of interactive learning and knowledge organization that are difficult to measure.
Another contribution to the measurement of innovation is the third edition of the Oslo Manual (OECD 2005). Some modifications are introduced in this edition, which are of great relevance for the tourism sector. The Oslo Manual (OECD 2005) recognizes the interaction with the environment as a driver of innovation. Apart from the linkages with other organizations, it is also suggested to take into consideration the institutional framework and the demand conditions. Nevertheless, the measurement of these innovation determinants is carried out as an external factor, since the manual is based on the “subject” approach and firms are the subject of study. Another important contribution from the Oslo Manual (OECD 2005) is to take into consideration industries with low levels of R&D such as services. It is emphasized that the measurement of innovation does not only include innovative activities carried out in