3. Significant accounting policies (continued)
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
The Group as lessor
Rental income from operating leases is recognised in the consolidated income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.
The Group as lessee
Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognised as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognised as a reduction of rental expense on a straight-line basis.
In preparing the financial statements of each individual group entity, transactions in currencies other than the functional currency of that entity (foreign currencies) are recorded in the respective functional currency (i.e. the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates) at the rates of exchanges prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At the end of the reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, and on the translation of monetary items, are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise. Exchange differences arising on the retranslation of non- monetary items carried at fair value are included in profit or loss for the period.
For the purposes of presenting the consolidated financial statements, the assets and liabilities of the Group’s foreign operations are translated into the presentation currency of the Group (i.e. Hong Kong dollars) at the rate of exchange prevailing at the end of the reporting period, and their income and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates for the year, unless exchange rates fluctuate significantly during the period, in which case, the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of transactions are used. Exchange differences arising, if any, are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity (the translation reserve). Such exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which the foreign operation is disposed of.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
All other borrowing costs are recognised as and included in finance costs in the consolidated income statement in the period in which they are incurred.
Annual Report 2010